8 the thirteen colonies rebel


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Notes 10/25

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8 the thirteen colonies rebel

  2. 2. Proclamation of 1763 British law that forbade settlement west of Appalachian Mts.
  3. 3. Quartering Act Colonies required to house & supply British soldiers
  4. 4. England is in debt Very expensive for Britain to keep army in America Impressment – forcing Americans to serve in British Navy
  5. 5. Mercantilist policy 1. Strict enforcement of Navigation Acts 2. Sugar Act – (1764) taxed sugar, etc. from anywhere except Br. discouraged trade with other countries 3. Currency Act (1764) outlawed paper money 4. Stamp Act – placed stamp on legal documents, newspapers, etc.
  6. 6. “No taxation without representation” James Otis Colonies thought they had no representation in Parliament Virtual representation – members of Parliament represented all people in the British Empire
  7. 7. Stamp Act Congress protest sent to England (9 colonies represented) Sons of Liberty group of protestors Boycott – (refuse to buy) British goods Led to the repeal (withdraw) of Stamp Act
  8. 8. DECLARATORY ACT Declared Parliament’s authority to make laws binding on the Am colonies “in all cases whatsoever.”
  9. 9. Townshend Acts Charles Townshend chancellor of the exchequer 1) import taxes on glass, lead, paper, paint, & tea 2) established new system of customs commissioners 3) suspended New York Assembly Writs of assistance search warrants of any building for any reason
  10. 10. Colonists began manufacturing their own products In Boston the Quartering Act was enforced Resentment of Br. Soldiers because they took away jobs from American workers Boston Massacre citizens taunted Redcoats – fired into crowd of protestors 5 killed – Crispus Attucks the first to die
  11. 11. • Townshend Acts repealed • Tea Act tax on tea to help Br. East India Co. gave them a monopoly Cheaper than smuggled tea • Boston Tea Party Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawk Indians secretly threw 342 chests valued at $90,000 into Boston Harbor
  12. 12. Committees of Correspondence • Groups organized by Sam Adams to keep up communication between colonies • Elevated events to “national” importance
  13. 13. Coercive Acts - to punish the colonies Intolerable Acts - named by colonists • Boston Port Act – closed the port of Boston • Massachusetts Gov’t Act - more power given to Mass. royal governor • Quartering Act - quartered in private homes • Administration of Justice Act - Br officials tried in Britain, not in colonies More troops sent to Boston to enforce the Acts
  14. 14. Suffolk Resolve Dr. Joseph Warren declared Coercive Acts unconstitutional and should not be obeyed Quebec Act set up gov’t for province of Quebec without an elected assembly
  15. 15. 1st Continental Congress met in Philadelphia at Carpenter’s Hall
  16. 16. • All colonies except Georgia • Met in Philadelphia in 1774 • Agreed to support Massachusetts • Would not obey Intolerable Acts • Organized an embargo (ban on all trade with Britain) • Each colony should begin training soldiers
  17. 17. Minutemen – members of the militia ready in a moment’s notice (elite force) Patriots – those opposed to British king & policies Loyalists or Tories – those loyal to the king Few expected war Patrick Henry of Virginia “…I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”
  18. 18. General Gage (British) learned of munitions kept in Concord 4/18/1775 moved 700 British troops to Concord Old North Church – signal of how troops would move “1 if by land, 2 if by sea.”
  19. 19. Paul Revere, William Dawes, Dr. Samuel Prescott warned of British move to Concord In a.m. tired Br. Troops faced Patriots at Lexington first shots of Revolutionary War “shot heard ‘round the world”
  20. 20. Continued on to Concord minutemen met them Sneak attacks on British all the way back to Boston Revolutionary War had begun!
  21. 21. Ft. Ticonderoga (British) store of artillery taken by Ethan Allen & Green Mt. Boys and Benedict Arnold
  22. 22. Second Continental Congress May 1775 - Philadelphia Some felt their job was to prepare for war Created Continental Army led by . . . George Washington
  23. 23. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill) •Patriots occupied peninsula across from Boston •Patriots created earthen fortress (redoubts) •British tried 3 times to take it •Huge British losses •Result: Americans would not be easily beaten
  24. 24. B U N K E R H I L L
  25. 25. • Olive Branch Petition July 1775 Congress sent to George III Patriots’ attempt for reconciliation King refused – wanted to teach colonies a lesson • Washington received artillery from Ft. Ticonderoga • British left Boston • Most Americans afraid to make a break for independence • Thomas Paine (Br) wrote Common Sense called for American independence
  26. 26. What do we do now? • Continental Congress drew up resolutions 1) called for colonies to become independent states 2) try to form foreign alliances 3) prepare a plan of confederation • Appointed committee to draft a Declaration of Independence • Thomas Jefferson wrote the declaration
  27. 27. • July 4, 1776 Declaration is adopted • Listed reasons the colonies had no choice but to declare themselves independent • This was treason in Britain’s view • Americans declared their independence. • Now they must win it!!