Chapter 5 Crisis in the Colonies


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Events leading to the Revolutionary War

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Chapter 5 Crisis in the Colonies

  1. 1. Crisis in the Colonies Chapter 5 pp. 138 - 163
  2. 2. Section 1: The French and Indian Way <ul><li>Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War marked the end of the French empire in North America </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conflict in the Ohio Valley <ul><li>The French feared the loss of fur trading in the Ohio Valley to English settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>The area was geographically important to the French as a link from Canada to settlements along the Mississippi River. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The French and Indian War (1754-1763) (England against France and its Native American allies) <ul><li>France allied with the Algonquin and Huron tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>French traders built alliances through trade and marriages with Native women. </li></ul><ul><li>England allied with the Iroquois tribe. </li></ul><ul><li>The Iroquois were enemies of the Algonquin and Huron tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>England also charged lower prices for goods to build allegiances. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Washington and the F. and I. War <ul><li>Washington was a land surveyor who attacked the French in the Ohio Valley. (1754) </li></ul><ul><li>He was eventually captured, then released. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Albany Plan of Union <ul><li>During a meeting in Albany, NY, Benjamin Franklin proposed a “ general government ” for the 13 colonies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for defense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The delegates at the meeting approved it, but each of the colonial assemblies rejected it (the didn’t want to give their individual power). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Summary of the F. and I. War <ul><li>Britain lost many battles for the first two years of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>William Pitt then sent his best generals to lead the war in 1757. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1759, the British led and attack on the New French capital of Quebec (located on a high cliff called the Plains of Abraham ). </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Treaty of Paris (1763) <ul><li>Britain gained Canada and all French lands East of the Mississippi (plus Florida from Spain). </li></ul><ul><li>France kept two islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and its sugar-growing islands in the West Indies . </li></ul><ul><li>Spain gained all French lands west of the Mississippi including the Port of New Orleans . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Section 2: Turmoil over Taxes <ul><li>Many colonists opposed Parliament’s attempts to tighten control over Britain’s North American Empire. </li></ul>
  10. 10. New Troubles on the Frontier <ul><li>Pontiac’s War – an Ottawa chief led attacks against the British, but without French support , it ended. </li></ul><ul><li>Proclamation of 1763 – prohibited any English settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and forced the colonists to pay for British troops in the border area. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Britain Imposes New Taxes … at the colonists’ expense of course.
  12. 12. Two New Tax Policies from British Parliament <ul><li>Sugar Act (1764) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually lowered a very high tax on molasses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT … it made molasses smugglers more easily brought to trial. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act (1765) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed a new tax on all legal documents (wills, diplomas, marriage papers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also taxed most goods made of paper (newspapers, playing cards… and dice!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All goods had to have a legal stamp on it, proving you paid the tax . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. “ No taxation without representation!” <ul><li>Colonists were upset they were not included in these decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>They participated in peaceful protests to have the Stamp Act repealed (canceled). </li></ul><ul><li>Petition – a formal request to the authorities signed by people . </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott – Refuse to buy certain goods or services. </li></ul><ul><li>Committee of Correspondence – Regular, organized letter writing to other colonies, reporting the situation in Massachusetts. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Sons (and Daughters!) of Liberty <ul><li>To protest a tax on household goods and writs of assistance , (Townshend Acts) colonists organized their protests. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Adams was a famous “Son of Liberty” and was active in organizing protests and boycotts. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Boston Massacre
  16. 16. March, 5, 1770 <ul><li>A crowd of colonists were heckling British Regulars (soldiers) at the Boston Custom house. </li></ul><ul><li>The soldiers were attacked with ice balls and oyster shells . </li></ul><ul><li>The soldiers fired into the crowd, killing 5 people. </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams was the lawyer for the soldiers, who successfully defended them. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Section 3: From Protest to Revolution <ul><li>Crises such as the Boston Tea Party and the Intolerable Acts led to the outbreak of fighting between Britain and her colonies. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Boston Tea Party
  19. 19. December 16, 1773 <ul><li>Colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians dump tea into Boston Harbor. </li></ul><ul><li>This was to protest British tea companies ability to sell directly to colonists at a lower rate . </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists’ believed the issue was not the tea, but Parliament’s ability to tax the colonies . </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Intolerable Acts (British response to the Tea Party) <ul><li>Boston Harbor closed … no ships in or out until the colonists paid for the tea. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists could not hold meetings more than once a year without permission . </li></ul><ul><li>Trial juries were now chosen by British officials . </li></ul><ul><li>British customs officials accused of crimes could be tried out of the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>British soldiers could move into the homes of the colonists if no other housing was “available.” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Type 1 … Why were these “intolerable” conditions so bad? <ul><li>For each of the “Intolerable Acts,” write a sentence or two describing how you think they would negatively effect the colonists. </li></ul>
  22. 22. First Continental Congress <ul><li>Held September 1774 in Philadelphia . </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives from all colonies (except Georgia) agreed to boycott British goods and stop exporting good to England until the Intolerable Acts were repealed . </li></ul><ul><li>Each colony was urged to establish and train a militia . </li></ul>
  23. 23. “ The Shot Heard Round the World”
  24. 24. Militia and “Minutemen” <ul><li>Militia – Citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>Minutemen – Massachusetts militia who were ready to fight “at a minute’s notice.” </li></ul>
  25. 25. “ The redcoats are coming!” April 17-18, 1775 <ul><li>A group of British soldiers left Boston to seize a weapons cache held by the Sons of Liberty. </li></ul><ul><li>The [S. of L.] sent out midnight riders including Paul Revere to warn and muster the militia to protect the weapons. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Battle of Lexington <ul><li>British forces outnumbered the 70 militia who started to leave before someone fired a shot , starting a short firefight. </li></ul><ul><li>The British killed 8 colonists and moved on to… </li></ul>
  27. 27. Battle of Concord <ul><li>After finding no weapons, the British headed back to Boston only to be faced by 300 minutemen on a bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>The British were forced to retreat after being shot at by militia and sharpshooters in the woods. </li></ul><ul><li>73 Redcoats killed, 200 wounded or missing. </li></ul>
  28. 28. So what happens now?