The Road to Revolution and
Victory

I. The British take a collision
course
A. British Situation in 1763
 1. The Native Americans and the British were

in conflict west of the colonies.
 2. Native...
B. Proclamation Line of 1763
 1. Decision made by the British government

to help settle land disputes between colonist
a...
C. Sugar Act of 1764
 1. The British government was looking for a

way to pay for all the expenses from running
a world e...
D. The Stamp Act (1765)
 1. This laws stated that all printed paper must

have a stamp on it proving you have paid the
ta...
E. The American reaction to
the Stamp Act
 1. Many colonists were OK with the government

taxing import, but taxing the d...
F. The Declaratory Act
 1. Parliament repealed the Stamp and Sugar

acts in 1766.
 2. The passed instead the Declaratory...
G. The Townshend Acts
 1. Charles Townshend was the new leader of

Parliament, and he put a tax on lead, glass,
paint, pa...
H. Sam Adams
 1. The British sent soldiers to Boston to help

enforce the laws of Parliament
 2. Sam Adams was a colonis...
I. The Boston Massacre
 1. Boston troops had been taunted by the

people of Boston for months, and late one
night people ...
J. Britain backs down
 1. The American boycott of British goods was

hurting the British economy, and the British
parliam...
K. The Boston Tea Party
 1. The British East India Tea Company was

given permission to sell their tea in the
colonies wi...
L. The Intolerable Acts
 1. The British government wanted to punish






Boston for its part in the tea party.
2. T...
M. The Quebec Act
 1. Added to the Intolerable acts
 2. Cut off the property claims of

Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virg...
Road to Revolution and
Victory

II. Declaring Independence
A. 1st Continental Congress
 1. The colonies began to work together against the

British government.
 2. September 5, 17...
B. Battles of Lexington &
Concord
 1. April 18, 1775 the British went to confiscate






weapons that the people of ...
C. 2nd Continental Congress
 1. 12 colonies sent delegates in May 1775 to

Philadelphia to demand their rights from the
B...
D. The Battle of Bunker Hill
 1. 16,000 men from New Hampshire,

Connecticut, Rhode Island, and
Massachusetts gathered ar...
E. The Olive Branch Petition
 1. After the battle of Bunker Hill, the

Continental Congress sent this petition
asking Kin...
F. “Common Sense”
 1. January 15, 1776, Thomas Paine






published a pamphlet that was very influential
in united t...
G. British leave Boston
 1. March 1776, Washington seized the

Dorchester Heights overlooking Boston.
 2. The British so...
H. Aid from France
 1. March 1776, Silas Deane was sent to ask

the French for help with soldiers, ships, and
money.
 2....
I. The Declaration of Independence
 1. July 2, 1776 the Continental Congress adopted a

short resolution that all politic...
The Road to Revolution

III. How British
Power was Overthrown
A. European wars in 1700’s
 1. Armies fought according to certain rules.
 Open fields, good weather, known opponents, no...
British Generals
 General John Burgoyne
 Colonel Barry St. Leger
 General William Howe
 General Henry Clinton
 Genera...
B. The American Soldier
 1. Colonist learned to fight from the Native Americans







who fought a total war, not a ...
American Generals & Soldiers
 William Prescott
 Baron von Steuben

 Ethan Allen & the

 Marquis de Lafayette
 Sumter
...
C. George Washington
 1. Worked for the British during

the French and Indian War.
 2. Fought in Pennsylvania, lost
www....
Famous Pictures of George Washington
 Was apart of the 1st

Continental Congress.
 Chosen by the 2nd
Continental Congres...
D. Two Stages
of the War
 1776-1778
 Fighting in the

 1779-1781
 Fighting in the

northern colonies
southern colonies...
E. The New York Campaign
 1. In 1776 Howe returns from Canada, and

moved into New York City.
 2. Washington attempted t...
www.metmuseum.org

F. Battles at Trenton
and Princeton

 1. In retreat, Washington stopped an staged a

surprise attack o...
G. The Battle of Saratoga
 1. In the summer of 1777, the British goal was to cut








off New England from the res...
H. Winter at
Valley Forge

www.qmmuseum.lee.army.mil

 1. Soldiers had little protection from the

harsh winter.
 2. 2,5...
Pictures of Valley Forge
 Soldiers slept in

tents in the winter
until shelters were
built.
www.philadelphia.about.com

w...
Valley Forge
 This is the home

where Washington
stayed during the
winter.

www.commons.wikimedia.org

www.home.comcast.n...
I. Help from Europe
 1. Marquis de Lafayette
 Young, French officer who served with
Washington.
 2. Thaddeus Kosciuszko...
J. Victory in the South
 1. In 1778 Savannah is captured by the British, and a

year later General Clinton sends 8,500 so...
K. Women at War
 Many women took up the jobs of the men who left to fight in the







war
1. Margaret Corbin
 Foll...
L. Blacks in the Revolution
 1. Blacks fought along with whites at the

beginning of the war.
 2. Washington did not lik...
M. The Treaty of Paris
 1. Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay when to

Paris to negotiate peace.
 2. On September 3,...
N. Reasons for British defeat
 1. Distance from headquarters
 2. British government was badly informed





about th...
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  1. 1. The Road to Revolution and Victory I. The British take a collision course
  2. 2. A. British Situation in 1763  1. The Native Americans and the British were in conflict west of the colonies.  2. Native Americans were capturing forts and killing settlers.  3. British army was fighting back, but they did not have enough men to fight against the many tribes.  4. The British government decided to send more troops to help, and because it was in the best interest of the colonists, they were going to be taxed to pay for it.
  3. 3. B. Proclamation Line of 1763  1. Decision made by the British government to help settle land disputes between colonist and the Native Americans.  2. A law was made that the colonist could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, and the Native Americans could not settle east of the line.  3. This caused major problems on both sides of the issue, and no one was happy about the decision.
  4. 4. C. Sugar Act of 1764  1. The British government was looking for a way to pay for all the expenses from running a world empire.  2. In 1764 Parliament passes the Sugar Act, that puts a tax on any barrel of molasses that is imported to the colonies.  3. Parliament was looking to get money out of the colonies by taxing sugar, coffee, and wines as well.
  5. 5. D. The Stamp Act (1765)  1. This laws stated that all printed paper must have a stamp on it proving you have paid the taxes for that item.  2. Punishments were fines and jail time, without a trial.  3. The government set up Admiralty Courts that could try smugglers and was not controlled by the colonists.
  6. 6. E. The American reaction to the Stamp Act  1. Many colonists were OK with the government taxing import, but taxing the daily lives of the colonists made many very angry.  2. They protested with town meetings and boycotted British goods.  3. Some formed a secret society called “The Sons of Liberty” to hinder the British agents using various methods from selling the stamp taxes.  4. Representatives from 9 of the 13 colonies met in New York to discuss the issue and demanded from Parliament a repeal of the sugar and stamp tax.
  7. 7. F. The Declaratory Act  1. Parliament repealed the Stamp and Sugar acts in 1766.  2. The passed instead the Declaratory Act that stated that Parliament still had the power to make laws for the Americans in all cases whatsoever  3. Many members of Parliament did not want to give up any control of the colonies.
  8. 8. G. The Townshend Acts  1. Charles Townshend was the new leader of Parliament, and he put a tax on lead, glass, paint, paper, and tea.  2. He reorganized the customs service, allowing dishonest agents to seize ships and get 1/3 the profit from the cargo.  3. He wanted the colonies to provide for the troops stationed in New York to protect the colonies  4. These acts were very unpopular in the colonies, and they boycotted British goods.
  9. 9. H. Sam Adams  1. The British sent soldiers to Boston to help enforce the laws of Parliament  2. Sam Adams was a colonist who organized a propaganda campaign against the British.  3. He was not a good manager of money, and had some problems with running a business.  4. He blamed the British for many problems in the colonies, and got the colonist riled up for a fight.
  10. 10. I. The Boston Massacre  1. Boston troops had been taunted by the people of Boston for months, and late one night people threw snowballs at them.  2. In the confusion the British troops opened fire, and killed 5 colonists.  3. Sam Adams discussed the event as the “Boston Massacre” and blamed bloodthirsty soldiers killing innocent Americans.  4. The soldiers were brought to trial, and found innocent of wrong-doing, but many Americans were still angry about the incident.
  11. 11. J. Britain backs down  1. The American boycott of British goods was hurting the British economy, and the British parliament repealed all of the Townshend Acts  2. King George wanted to retain some control, so he kept the tax on tea.  3. Most colonists paid the tax, and things somewhat returned to normal but there were still issues to be resolved.
  12. 12. K. The Boston Tea Party  1. The British East India Tea Company was given permission to sell their tea in the colonies without paying a tax to Britain.  2. The merchants of the colonies did not like that the Tea Company could sell tea without the tax, therefore charging lower prices.  3. The tea became a symbol of British tyranny that the colonies did not want to exist.  4. A group of men, dressed as Indians, went aboard the ship, and through all the tea into the Boston harbor.
  13. 13. L. The Intolerable Acts  1. The British government wanted to punish      Boston for its part in the tea party. 2. The British closed the port of Boston - chose a governor’s council for the colony - forbid any town meetings - punished government officials and soldiers in England - allowed soldiers to live in Boston homes free of charge.
  14. 14. M. The Quebec Act  1. Added to the Intolerable acts  2. Cut off the property claims of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, and New York of their western lands  3. Governments were set up without representative government and gave the Catholic Church special concessions.  4. They saw this as a preview for what was going to happen in the colonies.
  15. 15. Road to Revolution and Victory II. Declaring Independence
  16. 16. A. 1st Continental Congress  1. The colonies began to work together against the British government.  2. September 5, 1774, 12 colonies sent delegates to Philadelphia to discuss the trade issues with Britain.  3. A wide variety of views points came to the meeting, and they agreed on a Non-Importation Association  This banned all trade with Britain  People from each colony were in charge of making sure it was followed in each port.  4. They all agreed on a Declaration of Rights and Grievances to be given to the British government.  They wanted to tax themselves, and allow British to regulate trade.
  17. 17. B. Battles of Lexington & Concord  1. April 18, 1775 the British went to confiscate     weapons that the people of Massachusetts had collected in the town of Concord. 2. Paul Revere and William Dawes went ahead to warn the colonist that the British were coming. 3. 70 men gathered in the town square at Lexington to stand up to 700 British soldiers. 4. After the first shots were fired and some men were killed, the army continued on to Concord. 5. On the way to Concord and on the way back to their ships, the Americans picked off many soldiers, and killed over 300.
  18. 18. C. 2nd Continental Congress  1. 12 colonies sent delegates in May 1775 to Philadelphia to demand their rights from the British government.  2. George Washington was chosen as the commander and chief of the army.  3. The congress wrote a letter of marquee that allowed American ships to capture and destroy British ships.  4. Congress tried to provide the continental army with food, clothing, and supplies.
  19. 19. D. The Battle of Bunker Hill  1. 16,000 men from New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts gathered around Boston to fight the British.  2. June 16, 1775, Colonel Prescott was sent to fortify Bunker Hill, but he fortified Breeds Hill by mistake, and the battle was fought there, but called the Battle of Bunker Hill.  3. The colonists were behind a wall, and the British charged up the hill 2 times with high casualties.  4. The colonists ran out of ammunition, so they had to use bayonets to fight and win.
  20. 20. E. The Olive Branch Petition  1. After the battle of Bunker Hill, the Continental Congress sent this petition asking King George to stop taxing them and to give them peace.  2. The King refused to see the petition and hired 30,000 Hessian troops to put down the rebellion.  3. Congress declared a declaration of war on July 6, 1775
  21. 21. F. “Common Sense”  1. January 15, 1776, Thomas Paine     published a pamphlet that was very influential in united the colonies. 2. Paine urged it was only “common sense” to reject England and the King. 3. He urged them to rule themselves 4. 100,000 copies were sold very quickly, and spread throughout the colonies. 5. Many people think that Thomas Paine was one of the people who most influenced the colonists agreeing to a Declaration of Independence.
  22. 22. G. British leave Boston  1. March 1776, Washington seized the Dorchester Heights overlooking Boston.  2. The British soldiers and all the loyalist in Boston set sail in the navy fleet, and sailed to Halifax, Nova Scotia.  3. The siege of Boston was over, and the colonist could use the harbor again.
  23. 23. H. Aid from France  1. March 1776, Silas Deane was sent to ask the French for help with soldiers, ships, and money.  2. April 6,1776 the Congress opened all American ports for trade from any country except the British.  3. The French, trying to get back at the British empire, agreed to supply all the gunpowder for the American rebels.
  24. 24. I. The Declaration of Independence  1. July 2, 1776 the Continental Congress adopted a short resolution that all political connections with Great Britain would be ended.  2. Written by a committee of men: Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin.  3. Divided into sections:  Preamble  Declaration of Natural Rights  List of grievances with the crown.  Resolution of Independence by the United States  4. July 4, 1776 the Declaration was approved by the Second Continental congress, it was signed by the president of congress (John Hancock) and eventually 56 men signed it in agreement with the declarations.
  25. 25. The Road to Revolution III. How British Power was Overthrown
  26. 26. A. European wars in 1700’s  1. Armies fought according to certain rules.  Open fields, good weather, known opponents, no unusual weapons used  Officers were aristocrats  Regular soldier were common men or hired soldiers from other countries  Weapons were not accurate  Casualties were usually light  2. Colonial armies did not use these methods to fight and this gave them some advantage during the war.
  27. 27. British Generals  General John Burgoyne  Colonel Barry St. Leger  General William Howe  General Henry Clinton  General Charles Cornwallis  General Thomas Gage
  28. 28. B. The American Soldier  1. Colonist learned to fight from the Native Americans     who fought a total war, not a polite, traditional war. 2. Colonist called their soldiers “militia” who were regular men who owned weapons, not trained soldiers. 3. There was a wide rage of ages, no uniform, not much discipline 4. There was no enlistment, so some men came and went as they pleased. This was a constant frustration for Washington in fighting a trained, large British army. 5. Washington trained the Continental Army, who were enlisted men who were paid by the Congress, and who then would help the colonial militia.
  29. 29. American Generals & Soldiers  William Prescott  Baron von Steuben  Ethan Allen & the  Marquis de Lafayette  Sumter   Pickens  Francis “Swamp Fox” Marion  Daniel Morgan  Nathaniel Greene  Benedict Arnold      Green Mountain Boys George Rogers Clark General Jean de Rochambeau Richard Montgomery Nathan Hale John Paul Jones Admiral Francois de Grasse
  30. 30. C. George Washington  1. Worked for the British during the French and Indian War.  2. Fought in Pennsylvania, lost www.gedcom.surnames.com the battle, was captured by the French, and eventually released.  3. Planter and plantation owner in Virginia.  4. In response to Boston, he said, “the cause of Boston now is and will ever be the cause of America.”
  31. 31. Famous Pictures of George Washington  Was apart of the 1st Continental Congress.  Chosen by the 2nd Continental Congress to build an army. www.educationalsynthesis.org
  32. 32. D. Two Stages of the War  1776-1778  Fighting in the  1779-1781  Fighting in the northern colonies southern colonies  Washington had to  Washington had to organize an army, keep the southern keep it together, and colonies from losing not be defeated by to the British the British
  33. 33. E. The New York Campaign  1. In 1776 Howe returns from Canada, and moved into New York City.  2. Washington attempted to defend the city from Long Island.   Colonial troops were out-numbered and less trained than the British troops 1,500 killed, and Washington almost captured  3. Washington lead his army in retreat to New Jersey, and then into Pennsylvania.  4. The British control New York city until after the war.
  34. 34. www.metmuseum.org F. Battles at Trenton and Princeton  1. In retreat, Washington stopped an staged a surprise attack on Trenton, New Jersey.    December 25, 1776 Cold, snowstorm, 2400 men crossed an icy Delaware River. early morning while the enemy was sleeping they invaded the town.  2. After this victory Washington headed to Princeton, on January 3, 1777 an achieved another victory.
  35. 35. G. The Battle of Saratoga  1. In the summer of 1777, the British goal was to cut     off New England from the rest of the colonies. 2. Burgoyne would come south from Canada, St. Leger would come east from Lake Ontario, and Howe would come up the Hudson River. 3. St. Leger did not make it very far into New York, Burgoyne was stopped by forests and the number of militia, and Howe did not get the message, and went up the Chesapeake Bay to capture Philadelphia. 4. Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga, and fought at Saratoga, NY, all his escape routes were cut off by the Americans. 5. Burgoyne surrendered his 6,000 man army on Oct. 17, 1777, and the French decided to publicly support the cause of the American revolution.
  36. 36. H. Winter at Valley Forge www.qmmuseum.lee.army.mil  1. Soldiers had little protection from the harsh winter.  2. 2,500 American soldiers died from cold, disease, or hunger.  3. Baron Friedrich von Steuben, a Prussian soldier, spent the winter helping Washington train the troops to be soldiers.
  37. 37. Pictures of Valley Forge  Soldiers slept in tents in the winter until shelters were built. www.philadelphia.about.com www.reversespins.com Usually 12 men lived in a small shelter through the winter
  38. 38. Valley Forge  This is the home where Washington stayed during the winter. www.commons.wikimedia.org www.home.comcast.net
  39. 39. I. Help from Europe  1. Marquis de Lafayette  Young, French officer who served with Washington.  2. Thaddeus Kosciuszko  From Poland, experienced engineer who built trenches and forts for the Americans  3. Casimir Pulaski  From Poland, experienced cavalry soldier who trained and organized the first American cavalry  4. Bernardo de Galvez  Governor of Louisiana (Spain) who sent supplies and soldiers to help defeat the British in the West.
  40. 40. J. Victory in the South  1. In 1778 Savannah is captured by the British, and a year later General Clinton sends 8,500 soldiers to South Carolina.  2. In May 1780 Charleston is captured by the British, and the rest of South Carolina soon followed.  3. October 7, 1780 some backwoods soldiers, fought back an killed more that 1,000 British soldiers. Many guerrilla bands of soldiers continued to terrorize the British.  4. Eventually General Cornwallis (British) gradually moves to Virginia to join other British generals, but is outmaneuvered by Lafayette and moves to the coast of a town near Yorktown, Virginia.
  41. 41. K. Women at War  Many women took up the jobs of the men who left to fight in the     war 1. Margaret Corbin  Followed her husband to war, when he was killed in battle she took his place until she was wounded. 2. Mary (Molly) McCauley “Molly Pitcher”  Carried pitchers of water to the soldiers during the Battle of Monmouth on June 28, 1778 and took her husbands place at a cannon during the battle after he was killed. 3. Deborah Sampson  Disguised herself as a man and fought as a soldier 4. Abigail Adams  Ran the farm and business while her husband was at Congress, and wrote many letters that were preserved.
  42. 42. L. Blacks in the Revolution  1. Blacks fought along with whites at the beginning of the war.  2. Washington did not like blacks and whites fighting together, so he took them out of the army until the end when he needed more men.  3. The British offered freedom to any blacks who would fight for them, and so many blacks fought for the British.  4. Congress then changed their minds, and allowed blacks to fight, and granted freedom to slaves (with permission) who helped fight in the war.
  43. 43. M. The Treaty of Paris  1. Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay when to Paris to negotiate peace.  2. On September 3, 1783, Treaties were signed with Great Britain and France, Spain, and the United States.  3. Conditions:  Britain acknowledge the independence of the United States with the northern boundary at present day and the western boundary being the Mississippi River  Mississippi River was open to trade from all countries  Newfoundland was open to fishing  Debts from both sides must be repaid
  44. 44. N. Reasons for British defeat  1. Distance from headquarters  2. British government was badly informed     about the Americans 3. British faced an impossible task of keeping control of an entire continent. 4. America could not be won, by capturing a major city. 5. George Washington’s perseverance in keeping his army together 6. Colonists idea of fighting for family and home, not on foreign soil.

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