Chapter 5, Section 1


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chapter 5, section 1: SOC

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Chapter 5, Section 1

  1. 1. Chapter 5, section 1 <ul><li>Personality Development </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze the four main factors that affect the development of personality. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To analyze how isolation in childhood may affect development. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Personality <ul><li>What is personality? </li></ul><ul><li>Do any two people have the same? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they develop? </li></ul><ul><li>-the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristic of an individual </li></ul><ul><li>-people’s personalities continue to develop throughout their lifetimes…how has yours changed? What might make it change? </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nature versus Nurture <ul><li>What determines personality and social behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>-heredity: the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children </li></ul><ul><li>-social environment: contact with other people </li></ul><ul><li>---the debate continues…which is it? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Case for nature <ul><li>Human behavior is instinctual in origin </li></ul><ul><li>-instinct: an unchanging, biologically inherited behavior pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Instinctual drives are responsible for everything…laugh, cry, warfare, religion </li></ul>
  5. 5. Case for nurture <ul><li>Human behavior are result of his or her social environment </li></ul><ul><li>-important work from Russian Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>-experiments--Pavlov’s dogs - instincts could be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Extended by Watson who said he could teach or train healthy humans to be whatever they wanted </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sociobiology <ul><li>The systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior </li></ul><ul><li>They argue that most of human social life is determined by biological factors </li></ul><ul><li>Social scientists, however, refute this and suggest social environmental influences have greater significance… </li></ul><ul><li>The debate looms… </li></ul>
  7. 7. Heredity <ul><li>Characteristics present at birth that are passed down: body build, hair type, eye color, skin pigmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Also, certain aptitudes - the capacity to learn a particular skill…ie - music or art </li></ul><ul><li>Will little aptitude in music mean he or she will not be a musician? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean when one says, “the apple does not fall far from the tree” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Birth Order <ul><li>Are you the first born or last? Does it matter? </li></ul><ul><li>According to some, it does! First borns are more likely to be conservative, while last borns are more risk-takers… </li></ul><ul><li>What are you? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Parental Characteristics <ul><li>Personal behavior linked to parents </li></ul><ul><li>How? Age of parents - how do different ages relate to children? </li></ul><ul><li>Religious orientation, level of education, economic status, cultural heritage, occupational background </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Cultural Environment <ul><li>The atmosphere of one’s culture can influence personal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>American culture: assertiveness, individualism - common in US and common in its citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: the Iks of Uganda, the Native Americans, Palestinians </li></ul><ul><li>How do subcultural connections affect personality behavior - Italian versus Polish family? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Isolation in Childhood <ul><li>How is one affected by isolation or being raised without a cultural environment? </li></ul><ul><li>-feral children: wild or untamed children </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies: Anna - daughter of unmarried woman; after time of stay in foster care, returned to home; was confined to attic; was discovered by age of 6 - was not able to walk, talk, feed herself; learned how to do some, but died at 10…Isabelle - similar scenario; confined to one area with deaf mother; didn’t learn how to speak; found at age 6; behaved like infant; overcame some of social isolation </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Genie: discovered in 1970; father locked her in room and confined to little activity and movement; finally discovered, but after 8 years of intervention never reached past 3rd grade level </li></ul>
  13. 13. Institutionalization <ul><li>Studies performed on orphanages, hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Children may show characteristics of isolated children </li></ul><ul><li>Is it because lack of care? </li></ul><ul><li>How might this change your perspective on things? </li></ul>