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Chapter 5
Genes, Culture and Gender
How are we influenced by human
nature and cultural diversity?
 We are same from inside (our body
structure,internal system, genes etc)
-E.g We sleep, fear, walk, feel hungry,thirsty, the way
we judge strangers and all are same.
 But from outside we’re different due to climatic
changes and difference of cultures.
 Our cultures are different, our skin colors are
different.
-Genes, Evolution and Behavior
 Humans were all Africans , due to climatic
changes, availability of food they
migrated into Asia, Europe, Australia.
 They adopted to their new environments .
 Dark people Direct exposure to
sun.(Vit.D)
-Africans.
 White peopleless exposure to sun.
-Europeans.
Natural Selection
 (Charles Darwin)
 Nature selects those who have strong genes
and can produce offsprings.
 If your genes are not strong then you should
not survive.
 Environment is good for those who have strong
genes.
-Polar Bear
 Those who can’t reproduce shouldn’t survive in
any environment.
Natural Selection
 Organisms have many and varied offsprings
 Those offspring compete to survive
 Biological and behavioral changes increase their
chances of reproduction and survival
 Those offsprings are more likely to pass their
genes to their next generations
 Over time, population characteristics may
change
Evolutionary Psychology
 “Study of evolution of cognition + behavior
using principles of natural selection.”
 E.g Heart pumping,sending blood to brain,your body and
behavior is working according to it (this is your culture,
gender, evolutionary psychology)
Culture and Behavior
 Culture
“Collective
behavior,ideas,attitudes,traditions
of a group passing from
generations to generations”
 Nature (genes, birth)
 Nurture (surroundings,
friends,family,teachers)
Cultural Diversity
 Rules and regulations are different in different
cultures.(Diverse cultures)
-E.g Pakhtoon,Punjabi,Balochi cultures
 One-Arm Distance
-Personal space+privacy region
-Shouldn’t cross that region
Cultural Diversity
 Winking of eye
-for fun
-Boy Girl (wrong meaning)
 Food intake
- With hand
- Fork and knife
Expected Behavior
 Things people do or say that make other feel
calm,happy and pleased
 Norms(rules and regulations)
- MuslimsPakistaniPakhtoon,Punjabi
- Norms of class
 Cultures vary in their norms
Expected Behavior
 Expressiveness
-Traditional culturesminor libertyhuge liberty
-Expressiveness is different towards other cultures
 Punctuality
-To be on time ,to be punctual
-More strictness more punctuality and vice versa
Expected Behavior
 Rule breaking
-Rule for Namaz are different in different countries
-Signal Breaking
 Personal Space
-One arm distance,privacy region
-Family, background
The big five social beliefs
1 - Cynicism
-Powerful people tend to exploit others
2 - Social Complexity
-One has to deal with matters according to specific
circumstances
3 – Reward for Application
-One will succeed if he/she really tries
The Big five social beliefs
4 - Spirituality
 -Everybody has a spirit inside(Spirituality)
-Religious faith contributes to good mental health
5 – Fate Control
-Determines one’s success & failures
-If there is no believe on luck then there is no
satisfaction
Universal social Belief
dimensions
 Who rely on cynicism are less
satisfied
 They don’t care about doing
something wrong
 They live in anxiety and
stress
Universal status norms
 They talk to higher-status
people in the respectful
way
 Status may be of
wealth,job,eduction etc.
Incest Taboo
 To have sexual relationships with your father,
mother, siblings.
 Not acceptable in many societies, but rarely
acceptable in some.
Norms of War
 Don’t kill children, woman, old age people, unarmed
person
Gender Similarities and differences
Sex
 Biological determination of male and female by birth.
Gender
 The characteristics people associate with male and
female.
 Social construction of that sex.
Gender Similarities and differences
Male
 Slower to puberty
 Faster to die
 4x suicide
 More capable of wiggling
ears
Female
 Have more fat
 Shorter, weigh less
 More sensitive to smells
and sounds
 More prone to anxiety and
depression
Independence vs Connectedness
Male
 Large group activities
 Interact with their own gender
 Shortest conversation
 Less emotions
 Value earning, promotions
 Less smile
 Less empathy
Female
 Play less aggressively
 Talk more
 Longer conversation
 More helpful
 More emotions
 More caring
 More smile
 More empathy
Gender Similarities and differences
Social Dominance
 Men are socially dominant
 Men tend to be
autocratic, women more
democratic
 Men take more risks.
Aggression
 Physical or verbal behavior
intended to hurt someone
 Women are slightly more
aggressive indirectly
e.g Spreading malicious
gossips
Gender Similarities and differences
 Sexuality
-Men
More often think about and initiate sex
-Women
Are more inspired by emotional passion
Evolution and Gender:
Doing what comes naturally?
Gender Mating Preferences
 Men seek out quantity, they prefer physicality
 Body shape and size,skin condition
 Women seek out quality(wisely choose)
-Protecting and nurturing of offspring
 Select mates4 years older than them
Culture and Gender: Doing As The
Culture Says?
 Gender roles:
 “A set of norms for males and females.”
 Humans are actually culture shaper.
 People mould themselves according to culture.
 Culture demands how a man should behave and how a
woman should behave.
 E.g home  females (cook/chef)
 Restaurants  Males (Chef)
 Men and women both can perform in every profession
equally.
Gender roles vary with Culture
 Study on 27 countries found that
women did most of the housework.
 They spend twice as much time as men
on unpaired domestic work.
 In Western countries, gender roles
are becoming more flexible.
 No longer is pre-school teaching
necessarily women’s work and piloting,
driving etc necessarily men’s work.
Cont...
 Different countries having
different culture have different
gender roles.
 For example, men are much
valued by families in Asian
cultures.
 Women are respected for
caregivers whereas men are
respected for their
achievements in these countries.
Gender roles vary over Time
 With the passage of time the gender roles got
changed now females can perform those tasks
which male does.
-Driving taxi, buses, Bikes etc and many other
things
Peer-Transmitted Culture
 Nature: The genetic inheritance of human development
 Nurture: The environmental influence of human
development.
 It is the nurture aspect of life that determines the
roles of the gender. We as human we are born only
observing our surroundings. It is not until we were told
how two things are related together that actually
understand its true meanings (i.e understanding that
pink colour is in reference to a girl and a colour blue is in
reference to boy).
Continued...
 We learn from these ideas from the first agenda of
socialization which is our parents. Our families are the
ones that directly implies that you are a girl or a boy.
They are the ones whom we first interact with.
 50% of our personality is inherited out of which 0-10%
is parental nurturing and 40-50% is peer influence.
 Much of culture influence is transmitted to children by
their peers.
What can we conclude about genes,
culture and gender?
 Interaction:
“A relationship in which the effect of
one factor (such as biology) depends on
another factor (such as environment).
 Biology (genes) and culture are interlinked.
 Biological factors operate within a cultural
context, and culture builds on a biological
foundation.
The power of Situation and the
Person
 We make such situation which make other people
understand what we want to say.
 For example if we hate someone we create such
situations that tells them clearly.
1) A given social situation often affects different people
differently.
2) People often choose their situation.
3) People often create their situation.

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Social Psychology, ch 5 Genes, Culture and Gender by Nouman Khilji

  • 2. How are we influenced by human nature and cultural diversity?  We are same from inside (our body structure,internal system, genes etc) -E.g We sleep, fear, walk, feel hungry,thirsty, the way we judge strangers and all are same.  But from outside we’re different due to climatic changes and difference of cultures.  Our cultures are different, our skin colors are different.
  • 3. -Genes, Evolution and Behavior  Humans were all Africans , due to climatic changes, availability of food they migrated into Asia, Europe, Australia.  They adopted to their new environments .  Dark people Direct exposure to sun.(Vit.D) -Africans.  White peopleless exposure to sun. -Europeans.
  • 4. Natural Selection  (Charles Darwin)  Nature selects those who have strong genes and can produce offsprings.  If your genes are not strong then you should not survive.  Environment is good for those who have strong genes. -Polar Bear  Those who can’t reproduce shouldn’t survive in any environment.
  • 5. Natural Selection  Organisms have many and varied offsprings  Those offspring compete to survive  Biological and behavioral changes increase their chances of reproduction and survival  Those offsprings are more likely to pass their genes to their next generations  Over time, population characteristics may change
  • 6. Evolutionary Psychology  “Study of evolution of cognition + behavior using principles of natural selection.”  E.g Heart pumping,sending blood to brain,your body and behavior is working according to it (this is your culture, gender, evolutionary psychology)
  • 7. Culture and Behavior  Culture “Collective behavior,ideas,attitudes,traditions of a group passing from generations to generations”  Nature (genes, birth)  Nurture (surroundings, friends,family,teachers)
  • 8. Cultural Diversity  Rules and regulations are different in different cultures.(Diverse cultures) -E.g Pakhtoon,Punjabi,Balochi cultures  One-Arm Distance -Personal space+privacy region -Shouldn’t cross that region
  • 9. Cultural Diversity  Winking of eye -for fun -Boy Girl (wrong meaning)  Food intake - With hand - Fork and knife
  • 10. Expected Behavior  Things people do or say that make other feel calm,happy and pleased  Norms(rules and regulations) - MuslimsPakistaniPakhtoon,Punjabi - Norms of class  Cultures vary in their norms
  • 11. Expected Behavior  Expressiveness -Traditional culturesminor libertyhuge liberty -Expressiveness is different towards other cultures  Punctuality -To be on time ,to be punctual -More strictness more punctuality and vice versa
  • 12. Expected Behavior  Rule breaking -Rule for Namaz are different in different countries -Signal Breaking  Personal Space -One arm distance,privacy region -Family, background
  • 13. The big five social beliefs 1 - Cynicism -Powerful people tend to exploit others 2 - Social Complexity -One has to deal with matters according to specific circumstances 3 – Reward for Application -One will succeed if he/she really tries
  • 14. The Big five social beliefs 4 - Spirituality  -Everybody has a spirit inside(Spirituality) -Religious faith contributes to good mental health 5 – Fate Control -Determines one’s success & failures -If there is no believe on luck then there is no satisfaction
  • 15. Universal social Belief dimensions  Who rely on cynicism are less satisfied  They don’t care about doing something wrong  They live in anxiety and stress Universal status norms  They talk to higher-status people in the respectful way  Status may be of wealth,job,eduction etc.
  • 16. Incest Taboo  To have sexual relationships with your father, mother, siblings.  Not acceptable in many societies, but rarely acceptable in some. Norms of War  Don’t kill children, woman, old age people, unarmed person
  • 17. Gender Similarities and differences Sex  Biological determination of male and female by birth. Gender  The characteristics people associate with male and female.  Social construction of that sex.
  • 18. Gender Similarities and differences Male  Slower to puberty  Faster to die  4x suicide  More capable of wiggling ears Female  Have more fat  Shorter, weigh less  More sensitive to smells and sounds  More prone to anxiety and depression
  • 19. Independence vs Connectedness Male  Large group activities  Interact with their own gender  Shortest conversation  Less emotions  Value earning, promotions  Less smile  Less empathy Female  Play less aggressively  Talk more  Longer conversation  More helpful  More emotions  More caring  More smile  More empathy
  • 20. Gender Similarities and differences Social Dominance  Men are socially dominant  Men tend to be autocratic, women more democratic  Men take more risks. Aggression  Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone  Women are slightly more aggressive indirectly e.g Spreading malicious gossips
  • 21. Gender Similarities and differences  Sexuality -Men More often think about and initiate sex -Women Are more inspired by emotional passion
  • 22. Evolution and Gender: Doing what comes naturally? Gender Mating Preferences  Men seek out quantity, they prefer physicality  Body shape and size,skin condition  Women seek out quality(wisely choose) -Protecting and nurturing of offspring  Select mates4 years older than them
  • 23. Culture and Gender: Doing As The Culture Says?  Gender roles:  “A set of norms for males and females.”  Humans are actually culture shaper.  People mould themselves according to culture.  Culture demands how a man should behave and how a woman should behave.  E.g home  females (cook/chef)  Restaurants  Males (Chef)  Men and women both can perform in every profession equally.
  • 24. Gender roles vary with Culture  Study on 27 countries found that women did most of the housework.  They spend twice as much time as men on unpaired domestic work.  In Western countries, gender roles are becoming more flexible.  No longer is pre-school teaching necessarily women’s work and piloting, driving etc necessarily men’s work.
  • 25. Cont...  Different countries having different culture have different gender roles.  For example, men are much valued by families in Asian cultures.  Women are respected for caregivers whereas men are respected for their achievements in these countries.
  • 26. Gender roles vary over Time  With the passage of time the gender roles got changed now females can perform those tasks which male does. -Driving taxi, buses, Bikes etc and many other things
  • 27. Peer-Transmitted Culture  Nature: The genetic inheritance of human development  Nurture: The environmental influence of human development.  It is the nurture aspect of life that determines the roles of the gender. We as human we are born only observing our surroundings. It is not until we were told how two things are related together that actually understand its true meanings (i.e understanding that pink colour is in reference to a girl and a colour blue is in reference to boy).
  • 28. Continued...  We learn from these ideas from the first agenda of socialization which is our parents. Our families are the ones that directly implies that you are a girl or a boy. They are the ones whom we first interact with.  50% of our personality is inherited out of which 0-10% is parental nurturing and 40-50% is peer influence.  Much of culture influence is transmitted to children by their peers.
  • 29. What can we conclude about genes, culture and gender?  Interaction: “A relationship in which the effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor (such as environment).  Biology (genes) and culture are interlinked.  Biological factors operate within a cultural context, and culture builds on a biological foundation.
  • 30. The power of Situation and the Person  We make such situation which make other people understand what we want to say.  For example if we hate someone we create such situations that tells them clearly. 1) A given social situation often affects different people differently. 2) People often choose their situation. 3) People often create their situation.