<ul><li>We all come in different SHAPES and SIZES. </li></ul><ul><li>We all have STRENGTHS and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li> What's right for one person may not be right for another. There are things that are important to me, that you don't care about at all! </li></ul><ul><li>And sometimes your behavior doesn't make any sense to me. </li></ul><ul><li>But I want for us to understand each other, and communicate well, because we live together in the same world. </li></ul><ul><li>I know I can't expect you to want the same things that I want. We are not the same person, so we will not always see things the same way. I have my own Thoughts and my own Ideas, that may or may not fit into your vision of who I should be. </li></ul><ul><li>By learning more about my own Personality, and about other Personality Types, I can come to a better understanding of my strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>I can improve my interpersonal relationships, realign my expectations towards others, and gain a better self-knowledge that will help me define and achieve goals. </li></ul>
The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona , which means mask . Significantly, in the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character, but rather was a convention employed to represent or typify that character.
a. the sum total of the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual. b. the organized pattern of behavioral characteristics of the individual.
Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual.
Personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. In addition to this, personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life <ul><li>Some of the fundamental characteristics of personality include: </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency - There is generally a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors. Essentially, people act in the same ways or similar ways in a variety of situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological and physiological - Personality is a psychological construct, but research suggests that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs. </li></ul><ul><li>It impacts behaviors and actions - Personality does not just influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple expressions - Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social interactions. </li></ul>
Type Theories <ul><li>Theories adopting the type approach advocate that human personalities can be classified into a few clearly defined types and each person, depending upon his behavioural characteristics, somatic structure, blood types, fluids in the body, or personality traits can be described as belonging to a certain type. </li></ul>
Jung’s Theory of Two Types <ul><li>Carl Jung , Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types: </li></ul><ul><li>Introvert : Shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inward </li></ul><ul><li>Extrovert : Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward </li></ul>
Trait theories <ul><li>In the trait approach the personality is viewed in terms of various traits </li></ul><ul><li>Traits may be defined as relatively permanent and relatively consistent general behaviour patterns that an individual exhibits in most situations </li></ul><ul><li>If a person behaves honestly in several situations, his behaviour may be generalized and he may be labeled as honest and honesty is then said to be a behavioural trait of his personality </li></ul>
Cattell: Source & Surface Traits <ul><li>Raymond Cattell : from Devon, England, believed that there were two basic categories of traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface Traits : Features that make up the visible areas of personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source Traits : Underlying characteristics of a personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cattell also constructed the 16PF , a personality test identifying 16 personality factors (source traits). </li></ul>
Cattell: The Big Five <ul><li>Cattell believed that five factors were most important: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism </li></ul></ul>
Biological Factors Heredity Brain Biofeedback Physical Features
Heredity <ul><li>• It refers to physical stature, facial attractiveness, sex, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms are characteristics that are considered to be inherent. </li></ul><ul><li>• It plays an important part in determining an individual's personality. </li></ul><ul><li>• Heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual's personality is the molecular structures of the genes, which are located in the chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>• Recent research studies shows that young children lend strong support to the power of heredity and finding shows that some personality traits may be built into the same genetic code that affects factors like height and hair color. </li></ul>
Brain <ul><li>• Brain is the second biological approach to determine personality. • It plays an important role in determining personality. • Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB) and Split brain psychology results indicates that a better understanding of human personality and behavior might come from a closer study of the brain. • The definite areas of the human brain are associated with pain and pleasure. Research study shows that these things are true. </li></ul>
Biofeedback: <ul><li>• It is third biological approach to determine personality. • Physiologists and psychologists felt that biological functions like brainwave patterns, gastric and hormonal secretions, and fluctuations in blood pressure and skin temperature were beyond conscious control. Recent research shows that these functions can be consciously controlled through biofeedback techniques. • For this purpose, individual can learns the internal rhythms of a particular body process through electronic signals that are feedback from equipment which is wired to body. • In this process, the person can learn to control the body process through questions. It is one of the interesting topics to do future research work in personality </li></ul>
Physical Features <ul><li>• It is fourth biological approach to determine personality. • It is vital ingredient of the personality, it focus an individual person's external appearance which also determined the personality. • Physical features like tall or short, fat or skinny, black or white. These physical features will be influenced the personal effect on others and also affect self concept of individual. • Recent research studies shows that definitely this features influence to individual personality in an organization. In totally, heredity would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience can be altering them through creation of suitable environment. Apart from this, personality characteristics are not completely dictated by heredity. There are other factors also influenced to determining personality. </li></ul>
Environment factors Cultural factors Family factors Social factors
<ul><li>"Each culture expects, and trains, its members to behave in ways that are acceptable to the group. To a marked degree, the child's cultural group defines the range of experiences and situations he is likely to encounter and the values and personality characteristics that will reinforced and hence learned". -Paul H Mussen • Cultural factors are also major factors which influence to determine individual personality. • It refers to traditional practice, customs, procedure, norms and rules and regulation followed by the society. • It significantly influence to individual behavior compare to biological factors. • Cultural factors determine attitudes towards independence, aggression, competition, cooperation, positive thinking, team spirit, and a host of the human being and discharge his/her duties towards valuable responsibilities to society. • Western culture influence to Indian society. It is best example of the cultural factors also determine the personality. </li></ul>
<ul><li>• Family factors are also major factors which influence to determine individual personality. • Family consists of husband and wife and their children's. • Family role is very important for nurturing and personality development of their children. • Family will be guided, supervised, take care of all family members, cooperation, coordination and cooperation in work and also explained the role and responsibilities towards the family, society and real life. • Family either directly or indirectly influence to person for development of individual personality. </li></ul>
<ul><li>• Social factors are also major factors which influence to determine individual personality. • It involves the reorganization of individual's in an organization or society. • It refers to acquiring of wide range of personality by acquiring and absorbed by themselves in the society or an organization. • Socialization process is starting from home and extending to work environment in an organization or society. • It focuses on good relationships, cooperation, coordination and interaction among the members in the society or an organization or a family. environment factors consist of cultural factors, family factors, and social factors. </li></ul>
Situation Situation further influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality. A individual's personality, while generally stable and consistent, does change in different situations. Different demands in different situations call forth different aspects of one's personality. It has been observed that many arrogant and indisciplined employees become humble and disciplined in a particular situation. Those having a criminal background may become powerful and strong administrators, dominant politicians, etc.
Assessment of Personality <ul><li>Personality is a rather complicated concept, and it is very difficult to test accurately.. </li></ul>
Self-Report Inventories <ul><li>Self-report inventories are the most frequently used type of personality inventory. In self-report inventories, individuals answer a series of questions about themselves. One of the reasons that this assessment technique is so popular is because of the belief that people know themselves better than anyone else. </li></ul><ul><li>The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) is the most widely used psychological test. It consists of more than 500 questions about the individual which must be answered with true, false, or cannot say. </li></ul>
Other Self-Report Inventories <ul><li>There are a number of other self-report inventories which are used for a variety of purposes. These other tests include personality tests for normal individuals, such as the California Psychological Inventory; sex-role inventories, such as the Bem Sex-Role Inventory; value scales, such as the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values; and many more. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the other self-report inventories that is gaining popularity is the NEO-PI (neuroticism, extraversion, and openness personality inventory). The authors of this test take a strong stand on the universal nature of personality. It is becoming a popular personality test for normal populations, and it can now be taken in self-report form or in third-person form, where people can attempt to evaluate others' personalities. </li></ul>
Strengths and Weaknesses of Self-Report Inventories <ul><li>Self-report inventories are very easy to give, and provide a quick evaluation of personality. It is so easy to use, in fact, that it has become somewhat overused. </li></ul>
Projective techniques <ul><li>In psychology , a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts. This is different from an " objective test " in which responses are analyzed according to a universal standard (for example, a multiple choice exam). The responses to projective tests are content analyzed for meaning rather than being based on presuppositions about meaning, as is the case with objective tests. </li></ul>
Hermann Rorschach created the Rorschach inkblot test in 1921
For further reading visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rorschach_inkblot_test#The_ten_inkblots
Thematic Apperception Test <ul><li>The TAT is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique because it uses a standard series of provocative yet ambiguous pictures about which the subject is asked to tell a story . The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented, including the following: </li></ul><ul><li>what has led up to the event shown </li></ul><ul><li>what is happening at the moment </li></ul><ul><li>what the characters are feeling and thinking </li></ul><ul><li>what the outcome of the story was </li></ul><ul><li>If these elements are omitted, particularly for children or individuals of low cognitive abilities, the evaluator may ask the subject about them directly. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The standard version of the test contains 20 picture cards. Some of the cards show male figures, some female, some both male and female figures, some of ambiguous gender, some adults, some children, and some show no human figures at all. One card is completely blank. Although the cards were originally designed to be matched to the subject in terms of age and gender, any card may be used with any subject. Most practitioners choose a set of between 8 and 12 selected cards, either using cards that they feel are generally useful, or that they believe will encourage the subject's expression of emotional conflicts relevant to their specific history and situation </li></ul>
Draw-A-Person test <ul><li>The Draw-A-Person test requires the subject to draw a person. The results are based on a psychodynamic interpretation of the details of the drawing, such as the size, shape and complexity of the facial features, clothing and background of the figure. As with other projective tests, the approach has very little demonstrated validity and there is evidence that therapists may attribute pathology to individuals who are merely poor artists </li></ul>
Sentence completion test <ul><li>Sentence completion tests require the subject complete sentence "stems" with their own words. The subject's response is considered to be a projection of their conscious and/or unconscious attitudes, personality characteristics, motivations, and beliefs. </li></ul>