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Chapter 4, Section 4


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notes on chapter 4, section 4

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Chapter 4, Section 4

  1. 1. URBAN GEOGRAPHY Chapter 4, Section 4
  2. 2. Growth of Urban Areas <ul><li>-An urban geographer studies how people use space in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>- cities - areas with large populations and are centers of business and culture </li></ul><ul><li>- suburbs - built-up area around the central city; mostly residential </li></ul><ul><li>- metropolitan area - the city and its suburbs; examples: NYC, D.C., Baltimore(B-more) </li></ul>
  3. 3. House in the Burbs… <ul><li>-suburb area </li></ul>
  4. 4. Metro <ul><li>-metropolitan – city plus suburbs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Metamorphosis of a City <ul><li>Urbanization is the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>How might urbanization affect an area, a society, a culture, a way of life? What factors change? </li></ul><ul><li>Is urbanization a good or bad thing? Why? Or, does it have advantages and disadvantages? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gentrification… <ul><li>Movement of more affluent individuals into a lower-class area. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the motivation for this? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it affect the people living there? </li></ul><ul><li>Check out this video about Harlem, NY: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Check out this video about gentrification in NY: </li></ul>
  7. 7. City Locations <ul><li>allow good transportation (river, lake, coast) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources = Sacremento and gold </li></ul><ul><li>Waterways = Chicago and Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Economic activity = Pittsburgh and iron </li></ul><ul><li>Military, cultural, educational reasons </li></ul>
  8. 8. Land Use in a City <ul><li>Residential: single-family housing, apartment buildings, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial: areas reserved for manufacturing goods </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial: areas used for private business and buying and selling of retail </li></ul><ul><li>CBD--central business district- core of a city; business offices and stores </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, as you move away from CBD, lower land value and less expensive housing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Concentric Zone Model <ul><li>Core: CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Circular model --bull’s-eye </li></ul><ul><li>Lower income housing closer to CBD </li></ul><ul><li>What city follows this model? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sector Model <ul><li>CBD in core </li></ul><ul><li>Activities in wedges or sectors (usually follow transportation lines) </li></ul><ul><li>Residences in one area, some inter-mixture, but not much </li></ul>
  11. 11. Multiple Nuclei Model <ul><li>Nuclei or districts found throughout entire urban area </li></ul><ul><li>CBD may not be circular </li></ul><ul><li>Districts and sectors differ in size according to demand </li></ul>
  12. 12. Understanding the three models <ul><li>How are these models different? The same? </li></ul><ul><li>What general concepts of an “urban” area change or stay the same? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to business activity in each? Residences? </li></ul><ul><li>Which model does Dakar most closely follow? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Functions of Cities <ul><li>Retail, entertainment, transportation, business, education, government, manufacturing, wholesaling, residential, recreation, religious </li></ul><ul><li>Manhattan = over 70 museums, subway system </li></ul><ul><li>Essential=water supply, mass transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Why are these elements essential? </li></ul><ul><li>Use real-life cities to explain why… </li></ul>