PEMBELAJARAN BERASASKAN ELEKTRONIK DAN WEB
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INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA INTO INSTRUCTION :
THE ASSURE MODEL
MOHD NUSI BIN SIBULAH
PROF MADYA DATO’ DR. ABD LATIF B HJ GHAPOR
INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA INTO INSTRUCTION : THE ASSURE
What are the primary types of criteria used to analyze learners ?
The ASSURE Model is an Instructional System design process that was modified to be
used by teachers in the regular classroom. The process is one in which the teachers and trainers
can use to design and develop the most appropriate learning environment for their students.
Teachers also can use this process in writing lesson plans and in improving teaching and
It consist of six steps namely :
1. A – Analyze Learners
2. S – State Objectives
3. S – Select Methods, Media and Materials
4. U – Utilize Media and Materials
5. R – Require Learner Participation
6. E – Evaluate and Revise
The first step is Analyze Learners. Before we can begin, we must know our target
audience which is our students. We need to analyze and write down the relevant information
about our students. Thus, the primary types of criteria used to analyze learners are consist of
Identify Learners, Investigate their General Characteristics, Analyze their Specific Entry
Competencies and Identify the suitable Learning Style according to their characteristics. Further
explanation is presented as per table below ( Figure 1.1 ).
The first step is to specifically define the
audience. We must know the learners since
we are to select the best strategies to
meet the objectives that we have set. It is
related to the question of who are your
students? While this seems to be common
sense, but this step is important to mention
because keeping our students in mind
will help to ensure that we can work
to find materials and resources that will be
most appropriate and useful to students.
This is description of the class as a whole. It
includes such information as the number of
students, region, grade, age, ethnic group,
sex, mental, emotional, physical, social
problem or socioeconomic level. It can help
teachers to select the method or materials of
teaching according to characteristics of their
This is a description of the types of
expected of the learners. It is include prior
knowledge, Skills and attitudes. Ask
such as Do the learners have the knowledge
base required to enter the lesson ? Do the
learners have the entry competencies and
technical vocabulary for this lesson ? Have
learners already mastered the skills you are
planning to teach ? Do the learners have
or misconceptions about the subject ?
This is a description of the learning stylistics
preferences of the individual members of the
class. It can be include verbal, logical,
musical or structured. Students have their
learning style. Individuals learning style
the most appropriate and effective learning
control. Knowledge of learning style can
teachers to write the lesson plan.
Figure 1.1 : Types of Criteria used to analyze learners
Why are learning objectives an important aspect of lesson planning ?
The learning objective is important aspect of lesson planning because objectives was
indicated as learning outcomes, that is what will the student get out of the lesson. Therefore
it is important to clearly and specifically state objectives of the lesson. Thus, the objectives also
must be in specific. Besides, objectives statement also can help teachers in selecting the
appropriate of media and teaching method to be use. Teachers may not be able to assess student
achievement without the learning objectives.
The objectives statement is describing on what the learner will do as a result of
instruction. Things to keep in mind as we write the objectives are should focus on the learner, not
the teacher, use behaviors that reflect real world concerns and also must ensure the objectives are
descriptions of the learning outcomes and are written using ABCD format. In this regard, a good
objective statement contains the criteria of Who is to be achieve ? What you want to achieve ?
How to achieve ? and What is minimum level of achievement ? Or it can be presented in ABCD
format which are consist of :
1. A – Audience
It is refer to who is the audience in which specifies the learners for whom the objective is
intended. Therefore, a major premise of systematic instruction is to focus on what the learner is
doing, not on what is the teacher is doing.
2. B – Behavior
It is refer to what do you want them to do ? The behavior or capability needs to be demonstrated
as learner performance, an observable, measurable behavior or a real – world skill.
3. C – Condition
It is refer to under what circumstances or conditions are the learners to demonstrate the skill
being taught ? Here, be sure to include equipment, tools, aids or references the learner may or
may not use or special environmental conditions in which the learner has to perform. Therefore,
a statement of objective should include the conditions under which performance is to be
observed, if such conditions are relevant.
4. D – Degree
The final requirement of a well – stated objectives is to indicate the standard by which acceptable
performance will be judge. It is refer to how well do you want them to demonstrate their mastery
? Degree to which the new skill must be mastered or the criterion for acceptable performance
which is include time limit, range of accuracy, proportion of correct responses required and
Besides, learning objective is important because the selection of instructional
methods and media depend on what type of objective is being pursued and so does the
choice of evaluation instruments. The three domain on classification of objectives are :
1. Cognitive – Learning involves the whole array of intellectual capabilities from simple
factual recall to the generation of new theories.
2. Affective – Learning involves feelings and values. Objectives in the affective domain
may range from stimulating interest in a school subject to encouraging healthy social
attitudes to adopting a set of ethical standards.
3. Motor Skill – Learning involves athletic, manual and other such physical skills.
Objectives in the motor skill domain include capabilities ranging from simple mechanical
operations to those entailing sophisticated neuromuscular coordination and strategy as in
Describe methods of eliciting student participation when using technology and media
The methods of eliciting student participation when using technology and media
during instruction are :
1. In order to get each learner actively and individually involved in the lesson,
teachers can use the teaching method such as games, group work, presentations
and so on. Our role in the classroom today is one of a guide on the side and
2. Learners need to practice what they have learned. To ensure their participation,
correct responses should be reinforced. There should be activities included in the
lessons that allow learners to respond and receive feedback before any type of
evaluation is administered. In - class and follow - up activities also can help
3. An activity that involves students participation will produce a permanent change
in behavior. The learning experience will help in maintaining the students'
motivation toward learning activity. Training in the form of discussions, drills,
written exercises, language games and so can improve students’ participation.
4. Preparation of media and appropriate resources can actually help and maintain
students’ participation. It is include the discussion within the group which can
generate ideas and problem solving activities.