Instructional Design for Distance Education


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Presentation for NIOS at NIB, Noida on 3rd October 2010. Focusses on Instructional design for Self Learning Material development.

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Instructional Design for Distance Education

  1. 1. Instructional Design for Distance Education Developing Self Learning Materials
  2. 2. What is Instructional Design? <ul><li>It’s a Process to optimize learning in a given context </li></ul><ul><li>The end product is a Blueprint </li></ul><ul><li>It is the Science of creating detailed specifications for the development, evaluation and maintenance of situations which facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dissecting ID <ul><li>Instruction : the deliberate arrangement of learning condition to promote the attainment of some intended goal </li></ul><ul><li>Design : to create and plan for something to execute </li></ul>
  4. 4. Instruction Incidental learning Projects, apprenticeship, research, etc. No Visits to theatre/ museum, study tour, library, etc. Instruction Yes Pre-planned study resources exit? No Yes Specific objectives exist?
  5. 5. Models of Instructional Design Dick and Carey Model
  6. 6. Models of Instructional Design Smith and Ragan Model
  7. 7. Models of Instructional Design <ul><li>A nalyze learners </li></ul><ul><li>S tate objectives </li></ul><ul><li>S elect methods, media and materials </li></ul><ul><li>U tilize media and materials </li></ul><ul><li>R equire learner participation </li></ul><ul><li>E valuate and revise </li></ul>ASSURE Model of Heinich, Molenda, Russell and Smaldino
  8. 8. Generic Model of ID <ul><li>A nalysis </li></ul><ul><li>D esign </li></ul><ul><li>D evelopment </li></ul><ul><li>I mplement </li></ul><ul><li>E valuate </li></ul>
  9. 9. Levels of Instructional Design <ul><li>Level 1: Course Level - Instructional planning is done at the highest level to specify main objectives of the course and detail out the specific lesson or units. </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2: Lesson Level – where each lesson is planned to cover one or more objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3: Instructional Event Level – where enabling objectives are specified and detailed lesson plan for each objective prepared covering appropriate media and methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Level 4: Learning Step Level – meaning each instructional event is planned in detail to write out some script or learning material. This is mostly the transactional level activity. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Is Distance Education for YOU <ul><li>QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>Can you provide necessary sensory (visual, aural, kinesthetic, olfactory, tactile) information using DE methods? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you organize interaction between students and teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>Is immediate feedback necessary and can you arrange for it using media? </li></ul><ul><li>Can DE methods deliver the achievement of learning objectives for the knowledge domain? </li></ul><ul><li>Can DE methods achieve the necessary KSA? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the course/ programme serve for 5-6 years and attract about 5000 students to achieve economies of scale? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Instructional Design for Distance Education <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the Learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning styles and needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject background and previous knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources availability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the context and needs </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Instructional Design for Distance Education <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Mix (Audio, Video, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical, Counselling, Assignments, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Instructional Design for Distance Education <ul><li>Development of Learning Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Self Learning Materials (SLM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of SLM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components of SLM </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Instructional Design for Distance Education <ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning material distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study Centres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselling Schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examination </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Instructional Design for Distance Education <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of the implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering feedback regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing the worth of the Course/Programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of the results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback to the planning process and revision, if any, of strategies, content, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Characteristics of Self Learning Materials <ul><li>Self Explanatory </li></ul><ul><li>Self Directed </li></ul><ul><li>Self Contained </li></ul><ul><li>Self Motivating </li></ul><ul><li>Self Evaluating </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Self Learning Materials <ul><li>Tutorial-in-Print </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective Action Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogic </li></ul>
  18. 18. Components of SLM <ul><li>Beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure/ Concept Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections/ Sub-sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check Your Progress (CYP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End Matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let Us Sum Up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback to CYP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions for further work </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Structure <ul><li>Showing hierarchical relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Advance Organizer/Conceptual Map </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed </li></ul>
  20. 20. Introduction <ul><li>Help recall previous learning </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of what is coming next </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance to the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Study Guide </li></ul><ul><li>This is not introduction to the content </li></ul>
  21. 21. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Help learners know when they achieve objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Help in deciding assessment techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Help course-writers to plan instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Good objectives include: Conditions , Performance verbs , and Standards </li></ul>
  22. 22. Main Body <ul><li>Use illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>Use simple sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Break to give space for self assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Use conversational language (e.g. I, you, we, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the content is sequential manner to help learning </li></ul><ul><li>Make learning material interactive </li></ul>
  23. 23. Principle of Sequencing Content <ul><li>Known to Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Simple to Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete to Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Particular to General </li></ul><ul><li>Actual to Representative </li></ul>
  24. 24. Making SLM Interactive <ul><li>Use a variety of questioning techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Use in-text question to improve conversational style of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Use different types of objective type questions </li></ul><ul><li>Give feedback and not just answer; it is important to say why a particular response is incorrect, than to just say what is correct. </li></ul>