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Asian 845 china catayas

Asian 845 china catayas






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    Asian 845 china catayas Asian 845 china catayas Presentation Transcript

    • Prepared by: Mera Catayas
    • • Originally a tribe living in the lower regions of the Yellow River during the Xia Dynasty (21st - 17th century BC), Shang was established by King Tang in 1675 BC after overthrowing the tyrannical rule of Jie, (Xia's last emperor). • This dynasty lasted over 600 years and was led by 30 different emperors. As the capital of the Shang was always based in Yin (the now Xiaotun Village, in Anyang City of Henan Province), it is also known as 'Yin Shang'. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/shang/
    • • 1st Tang - Family name: Zi; Given name: Tang; He overthrew the tyrannical rule of Jie of the Xia Dynasty. The society was stable and the people lived happy lives during his reign. • 2nd Wai Bing - Son of Tang • 3rd Zhong Ren - Son of Tang and younger brother of Wai Bing • 4th Tai Jia - grandson of Tang • 5th Wo Ding - Son of Tai Jia • 6th Tai Geng - Son of Tai Jia and the younger brother of Wo Ding • 7th Xiao Jia - Son of Tai Geng • 8th Yong Ji - Brother of Xiao Jia; The dynasty began to decline under his rule. • 9th Tai Wu - Younger brother of Yong Ji • 10th Zhong Ding - Son of Tai Wu • 11th Wai Ren - Son of Tai Wu and younger brother of Zhong Ding • 12th He Dan Jia - Son of Tai Wu and younger brother of Wai Ren • 13th Zu Yi - Son of He Dan Jia; the Shang Dynasty came into prosperity again. • 14th Zu Xin - Son of Zu Yi • 15th Wo Jia - Son of Zu Yi and the younger brother of Zu Xin • 16th Zu Ding - Son of zu Xin • 17th Nan Geng - Son of Wo Jia • 18th Yang Jia - Son of Zu Ding; the country was in decline during his reign.
    • • 19th Pan Geng - Son of Zu Ding and the younger brother of Yang Jia; He moved the capital to Yin, thus the dynasty is also called Yin Shang. The country was prosperous during his reign. • 20th Xiao Xin - Son of Zu Ding and the younger brother of Pan Geng. The country declined again in his reign. • 21st Xiao Yi - Son of Zu Ding and the younger brother of Xiao Xin • 22nd Wu Ding - The best emperor after Pan Geng. He enlarged the domain of the country through a war. Social productivity developed to a high level, including aspects of textile, medicine, and astronomy. There were great achievements during his reign. • 23rd Zu Geng - Son of Wu Ding • 24th Zu Jia - Son of Wu Ding and younger brother of Zu Geng • 25th Lin Xin - Son of Zu Jia • 26th Geng Ding - Son of Zu Jia and younger brother of Lin Xin • 27th Wu Yi - Son of Geng Ding • 28th Tai Ding - Son of Wu Yi • 29th Di Yi - Son of Tai Ding; the country was declined even worse. • 30th Zhou - Family name: Zi; Given name: Xin; He acted atrociously toward his people and doted on his imperial concubine, Daji. He was finally defeated by the tribe of Zhou.
    • Fishing began to grow as an industry as the people fished in the fresh waters. The most famous bronze work from this time is the Simuwu Quadripod, weighing 832.84 kg (about 1836 pounds) it is the largest and heaviest Chinese bronze vessel. The improvements in the bronze casting techniques allowed for delicate musical instruments to be made. In Yin Xu (Yin Yuins) in Xiao Tun Village of Anyang City, archeologists discovered musical instruments of the Shang Dynasty including: Xun (Ocarina made of baked clay), drums, and copper cymbals. Simuwu Quadripod Xun
    • • The Western Zhou was established by King Wu which included the reigns of 13 emperors and played a very important role in Chinese history because of its great developments, the Western Zhou is renowned as the period which saw the height of splendor of Prehistoric Times. • Originally a dependency of the Shang, the Zhou developed quickly under the reign of Wenwang and Wuwang and In 1046 BC, Wuwang defeated the Shang and established the Zhou. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/zhou/western/
    • • 1st Wenwang (Ji Chang) - With the assistance of Jiang Ziya, he developed the Zhou that laid the foundation for overthrowing the Shang Dynasty. - 1097 BC - 1046 BC • 2nd Wuwang (Ji Fa) - The son of Wenwang; He defeated the Shang Dynasty in 1046 BC and established the Western Zhou Dynasty. - 1046 BC - 1043 BC • 3rd Chengwang (Ji Song) - The son of Wuwang; he established the capital city of Luoyi (near Luoyang in Henan Province). - 1042 BC - 1021 BC • 4th Kangwang (Ji Zhao) - The son of Chengwang; Under his reign, the Zhou Dynasty prospered. - 1020 BC- 996 BC • 5th Zhaowang (Ji Xia) - The son of Kangwang; the Zhou Dynasty began to decline during his rule. - 995 BC - 977 BC • 6th Muwang (Ji Man) - The son of Zhaowang; His reign time is the longest among all the emperors in the Western Dynasty. - 976 BC - 922 BC • 7th Gongwang (Ji Yihu) - The son of Muwang - 922 BC - 900 BC • 8th Yiwang (Ji Jian) - The son of Gongwang. The Zhou Dynasty fell into a decline in his reign. - 899 BC - 892 BC • 9th Xiaowang (Ji Pifang) - The son of Muwang and the younger sister of Zhou Gongwang - 891 BC - 886 BC • 10th Yiwang (Ji Xie) - The son of Yiwang (899 BC - 892 BC) - 885 BC - 878 BC • 11th Liwang (Ji Hu) - The son of Yiwang (885 BC - 878 BC); He was a tyrant that abused the people and was defeated in many wars. After the people's rebellion in 841 BC, he was exiled. - 877 BC - 841 BC • 12th Gong Bohe - He was elected by other vassals to deal with the state affairs after Zhou Liwang was exiled. - 841 BC - 828 BC • 13th Xuanwang (Ji Jing) - The son of Liwang; He carried out a series of effective innovations and succeeded. - 827 BC - 782 BC • 14th Youwang (Ji Gongsheng) - The son of Xuanwang; he made fun of his seigneurs in order to make his concubine smile. The Western Zhou Dynasty was lost at last in his reign. - 781 BC - 771 BC
    •  The Zhou society was based on agricultural production. The Zhou dynasty put field grid patterns into use, which promoted efficient use of the land and systematic irrigation allowing fields to be properly watered.  Iron technology also increased significantly in Zhou Dynasty. This technology became so well-developed that the Chinese knew how to produce cast iron a full millennium before the same technique of producing cast iron was discovered in Europe.  The Zhou Dynasty contributed a lot to literature. It was one of the first dynasties to start collecting books including some famous works such as Zhou Li (Zhou Rituals), which became a description of how the early Zhou government was organized and the conduct of a gentleman. Source: http://www.chinatraveldepot.com/C160-Zhou-Dynasty
    • • Zhou Dynasty is considered the classical age. It was a time of great philosophers. This cultural flowering is called the One Hundred Schools Period. Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism developed during this time.
    • • The Western Han (206BC - 24AD) was regarded as the first unified and powerful empire in Chinese history. Lasting from 206 BC to 24 AD, it was established by Liu Bang, who became Emperor Gaozu following four years of civil war started by peasant uprisings against the despotic Qin Dynasty (221 - 207BC). Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/han/western.htm
    • Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/han/western.htm • 1st Han Gaozu(Liu Bang) - Son of a peasant family; He revolted against the rule of Qin. After defeating Xiangyu (his rival) during a four-year war, he established the Western Han in 202 BC and ruled the country for 12 years. - 206 BC - 195 BC • 2nd Han Huidi(Liu Ying) - Son of Liu Bang; Because he was inept to be an emperor, the power was held in the hand of his mother, Lvhou. - 195 BC - 188 BC • 3rd Han Lvhou(Lv Zhi) - Wife of Liu Bang; After Liu Bang died, she was in the seat of power although Liu Ying, Liu Gong and Liu Hong were the emperors in succession. - 188 BC - 180 BC • 4th Han Wendi(Liu Heng) - The fourth son of Liu Bang; He lightened the taxes and paid great importance to production thus promoting the development of society. Also he was a famously frugal emperor. - 180 BC - 157 BC • 5th Han Jingdi(Liu Qi) - Son of Han Wendi; He carried out serious measures like Wendi had done and obtained good results. - 157 BC - 141 BC • 6th Han Wudi(Liu Che) - The ninth son of Han Jingdi; He subdued the ethnic Xiongnu (Hun) invaders by wars. The Western Han was in its most powerful period during the reign of the Han Wudi. - 141 BC - 87 BC • 7th Han Zhaodi(Liu Fuling) - The youngest son of Han Wudi; He lightened the burden of the peasants and was on good terms with Xiongnu (Hun). - 87 BC - 74 BC
    • • 8th Han Xuandi(Liu Xun) - Also called Liu Bingyi and the great grandson of Han Wudi; During his reign, the ruling position of Confucianism was strengthened and burdens of the people were reduced greatly. - 74 BC - 49 BC • 9th Han Yuandi(Liu Shi) - Son of Han Xuandi; The Western Han began to decline during his reign. - 49 BC - 33 BC • 10th Han Chengdi(Liu Ao) - Son of Han Yuandi; He squandered the countries wealth, which caused the country to decline. - 33 BC - 7 BC • 11th Han Aidi(Liu Xin) - Nephew of Han Chengdi; Although all kinds of social contradictions were sharp, he only believed in ghosts and gods to solve all the problems with the result that Wang Mang stole power. - 7 BC - 1 BC • 12th Han Pingdi(Liu Kan) - Grandson of Han Yuandi; was really a puppet of Wang Mang. Later, he was poisoned to death by Wang Mang. - 1 BC - 5 AD • 13th Ruzi(Liu Ying) - He came to the throne when he was two years old. In 8 AD, Wang Mang claimed himself as the emperor and killed Ruzi in 25 AD.
    •  In industry, productivity was improved greatly in both metallurgy and the textile industry. Looms were used taking the place of manual labor in weaving.  The stability of the country and rapid development of the arts with the invention of paper and porcelain and industry provided commerce a favorable environment to develop.  Literature flourished with the invention of paper, as art flourished with the invention of the loom, and the invention of porcelain. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/han/western.htm Coins Inscribed with Characters "Wuzhu" or "Banliang" A Wine Vessel with Loop Handle Pottery Horse, Burial Object
    • • Regarded as a continuation of the Western Han (206 BC - 24 AD), the Eastern Han (25 AD - 220 AD) was established by Liu Xiu, who became the Emperor Guangwu. • With Luoyang in Henan Province as its capital city, the dynasty was reined over by 12 emperors in a span of 195 years. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/han/eastern.htm
    • Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/han/eastern.htm • 1st Guang Wudi(Liu Xiu) - He joined the troops to rebel against the Xin. After defeating the army of Wang Mang, he re- established the Han Dynasty making Luoyang its capital city. - 25 - 57 • 2nd Mingdi(Liu Zhuang) - The fourth son of Guang Wudi; People lived a stable life during his reign. The famous White Horse Temple was built under his order. - 57 - 75 • 3rd Zhangdi (Liu Da) - The fifth son of Mingdi; He was also regarded as a calligraphist adept at cursive scripts. - 75 - 88 • 4th Hedi(Liu Zhao) - The fourth son of Zhangdi - 88 - 105 • 5th Shangdi (Liu Long) - The youngest son of Hedi - 105 - 106 • 6th Andi (Liu Hu) - Grandson of Zhangdi; The social divide was increased and all kinds of social contradictions became sharp under his rule. - 106 - 125 • 7th Shundi (Liu Bao) - Son of Andi; Eunuch grasped the power to deal with the state affairs under his reign. - 125 - 144 • 8th Chongdi(Liu Bing) - Son of Shundi - 144 - 145 • 9th Zhidi(Liu Zuan) - Great grandson of Zhangdi - 145 - 146 • 10th Huandi(Liu Zhi) - Great grandson of Zhangdi - 146 - 167 • 11th Lingdi(Liu Hong) - Great-great-grandson of Zhangdi; the country was again in great disarray, meaning that people lived a very hard life. The rule of Lingdi intensified all kinds of social (divides) contradictions that caused the insurgence led by Zhang Jiao. - 168 - 189 • 12th Xiandi (Liu Xie) - Son of Lingdi; the Han Dynasty perished under his reign. - 189 - 220
    •  The productivity of industry was greatly improved. A special tool called 'Shui Pai' was invented by a local viceroy in Nanyang.  Some crucial changes in science and culture also took place in this dynasty. In 105, a court official named Cai Lun improved the previous method of making paper, which ended the use of inscribed bamboo strips.  In Eastern Han, the arts began to gain status. Calligraphy and painting were no longer purely used as letter symbols. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/han/western.htm Three-legged Bronze Lamp, Eastern Han Dynasty Potteries of Eastern Han Dynasty Armillary Sphere invented by Zhang Heng, Eastern Han Dynasty
    • • Started from 581 and ended in 618, the Sui Dynasty lasted for only 38 years and had only three emperors. With a tyrannical second emperor - Emperor Yang, this dynasty was often compared to the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC). Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/sui/
    • Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/sui/ • 1st Sui Wendi(Yang Jian) - He was father-in-law of the last emperor of Northern Zhou; After the emperor died, he seized the throne for himself and established the Sui Dynasty - 581 - 604 • 2nd Sui Yangdi(Yang Guang) - The second son of Sui Wendi; known as a tyrant who led the dynasty to decline - 604 - 617 • 3rd Sui Gongdi(Yang You) - The last emperor of Sui Dynasty who yielded the throne to Li Yuan (later Emperor Gaozu of the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907)) - 617 - 618
    •  The Sui Dynasty made great advances in natural science and art. The noted astronomer Liu Zhuo wrote Huang-ji Calendar, in which the lunisolar precession he worked out was almost the same as that of modern times. Famous artisan Li Chun then designed and constructed the Zhaozhou Bridge which is the most ancient stone bridge in existence, enjoying the fame as “the First Bridge in the World”.  In economy, Sui ordered the rectification of the household register, checked the population, carried out a land equalization system, and adjusted the taxes and conscript labor. Yangtze Rivers Zhaozhou Bridge Buddha statues in Maiji Mountain, carved in the Sui Dynasty Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/sui/
    • • The Tang Dynasty was the most glistening historic period in China's history. Founded in 618 and ending in 907, the state, under the ruling of the Tang Emperors, became the most powerful and prosperous country in the world. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/tang/
    • • 1st Tang Kao Tsu(Li Yuan) - A chancellor of the Sui Dynasty (581 - 618) who rose in rebellion; the founder of the Tang Dynasty - 618 - 626 • 2nd Tang Taizong(Li Shimin) - The second son of Li Yuan; a bold and powerful ruler good at both military strategy and Chinese calligraphy; His reign was called the Zhenguan Reign, which started the glorious period of Tang. - 627 - 649 • 3rd Tang Gaozong (Li Zhi) - The 9th son of Li Shimin; considered a weak ruler because he was assisted by Empress Wu Zetian for most of his reign - 650 - 683 • 4th Tang Zhongzong(Li Xian) - Son of Lizhi and Wu Zetian; He was on the throne for two month in 684 before Wu deposed him. After Wu was deposed in 705, he ruled for five years with Empress Wei's interfering in court affairs - 684, 705 - 710 • 5th Tang Ruizong (Li Dan) - The eighth son of Li Zhi and Wu Zetian; the fifth and ninth emperor of the Tang Dynasty; His first ruling period came after Wu deposed Li Xian. His second period of reign began after the coup by his sister Princess Taiping and his son Li Longji (later Xuanzong). - 684 - 690, 710 - 712 Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/tang/
    •  The Tang period was a golden age of Chinese literature and art. Tang poem was one of the most outstanding ones. Tang Tri-colored Glazed Pottery Mural of a Banquet, Tang Dynasty Agate Cup with Animal Head, Tang Dynasty Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/tang/
    • • In 960, a military general of the Latter Zhou Dynasty (951 - 960) named Zhao Kuangyin launched a mutiny in Chenqiao County. After forcing the last emperor of the Latter Zhou to yield the throne, he established the Northern Song in Kaifeng. • In 1125, the Northern Song court was invaded by the army of the Jin Dynasty (1115 - 1234). With weak military strength, Emperor Huizong was not able to withstand the fierce attack of the Jin army and had to flee the capital city. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/song.htm
    • • 1st Song Taizu(Zhao Kuangyin) - Formerly the leading general of the Latter Zhou (951 - 960); He usurped the throne and founded the Song Dynasty by launching a coup. - 960 - 976 • 2nd Song Taizong(Zhao Guangyi) - The younger brother of Zhao Kuangyin; during his reign, the whole China was unified by his defeating the Northern Han (951 - 979). - 976 - 997 • 3rd Song Zhenzong(Zhao Heng) - Son of Emperor Taizong; In his reign, the military power of Song was strengthened but he signed the first humiliating treaty with the Liao (916 - 1125). Especially, he founded the famous ceramic kiln in Jingdezhen. - 997 - 1022 • 4th Song Renzong(Zhao Zhen) - Son of Emperor Zhenzong; His reign was the turning point of the Song Dynasty from the prosperity to the disintegration. - 1022 - 1063 • 5th Song Yingzong (Zhao Shu) - Son of one of the imperial clansmen and was adopted by Emperor Renzong; Actually, Emperor Yingzong's father was the first cousin of Emperor Renzong. - 1063 - 1067 • 6th Song Shenzong(Zhao Xu1) - During his reign, he appointed Wang Anshi as Chancellor who presented a series of reform policy. He tried to expel Xixia (a contemporary kingdom of the Northern Song) troops out of the Song's territory but it was in vain. - 1067 - 1085 Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/song.htm
    • • 7th Song Zhezong(Zhao Xu3) - Son of Emperor Zhenzong; In his reign, a conventional chancellor named Sima Guang was appointed, who once halted the reform policy put forth by Wang Anshi. - 1085 – 1100 • 8th Song Huizong(Zhao Ji) - The 11th son of Emperor Shenzong; one of the few monarchs who favored Taoism and against Buddhism; As an emperor, he was more well-known as a painter, poet, calligrapher and musician. - 1100 - 1125 Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/song.htm 9th Song Qinzong(Zhao Huan) - The eldest son of Emperor Huizong; He ascended to the throne after his father abdicated. However, the Song court was defeated by the Jin army in 1127 after which both Qinzong and Huizong were demoted to commoner. - 1126 - 1127
    •  the development of science, culture, and art during this period was as advanced as that of the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907).  In science, the world's earliest typography was invented by a man named Bi Sheng. In addition, gunpowder was first applied to military affairs. Ruins of Song Great Wall in Kelan County, Shanxi Porcelain, Northern Song Dynasty Zhao Kuangyin, the first emperor of Northern Song Dynasty Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/song.htm
    • • After the downfall of the Northern Song (960 - 1127), the Jin army captured many members of the imperial family, except Zhao Gou, the younger brother of the last emperor. In 1127, the Jin dynasty withdrew its troops from Kaifeng (capital of the Northern Song) and enthroned a puppet emperor. • After the death of the former king of the Mongolians, his younger brother - Kublai Khan - became the new king. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/song/southern.htm
    • • 1st Song Gaozong(Zhao Gou) - The ninth son of Emperor Huizong who escaped the capture of the Jin court; He founded the weak Northern Song in Lin'an (currently Hangzhou). - 1127 - 1162 • 2nd Song Xiaozong(Zhao Shen) - He belonged to the seventh generation descendants of Emperor Taizu. - 1162 - 1189 • 3rd Song Guangzong(Zhao Dun) - The present Chongqing City was originally named by Guangzong, meaning ‘double celebration'. - 1189 - 1194 • 4th Song Ningzong(Zhao Kuo) - In his reign, the cultural and intellectual achievements were abundant. - 1194 - 1224 • 5th Song Lizong(Zhao Yun) - He was not interested in state affairs. In his reign, the Jin (1115 - 1234) was destroyed in 1234. - 1224 - 1264 • 6th Song Duzong(Zhao Qi) - Nephew of Emperor Lizong; His reign was full of rebellions and war affairs. - 1264 - 1274 • 7th Song Gongdi (Zhao Xian) - Son of Emperor Duzong; His reign lasted for only two years then he abdicated to his elder brother. - 1275 – 1276 • 8th Song Duanzong(Zhao Shi) - Son of Emperor Duzong; His reign also lasted for two years till his death. - 1276 - 1278 • 9th Song Weiwang(Zhao Bing) - Younger brother of Duanzong and died at eight; Chancellor Lu Xiu carried him jumping into the sea after the Yuan army's invasion. - 1278 - 1279 Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/song.htm
    • Iron statues of Zhang Jun and Mo Qixie, who murdered Yue Fei together with Qin Hui and his wife Tomb of General Yue Fei, Hangzhou Statue of Yue Fei, a famous general in the Southern Song Dynasty Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/song.htm
    • • Great Yuan Empire was the first of two time periods where the entire area of China was ruled by minorities, in this case, the Mongols. It ended hundreds years of dispute in China afterTang Dynasty and reunified the country as a whole. It is considered both as a division and continuation of the Mongol Empire and as an imperial dynasty of China. • Genghis Khan led the Mongols in their defeat over most of China. However, it was his grandson, Kublai Khan who became the emperor and founder of the Yuan dynasty. Genghis Khan was placed on the official record as the founder of the dynasty (Emperor Taizu). The Yuan Dynasty was famous for its incomparable military genius. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/yuan/
    • • 1st Yuan Shizu(Borjigin Kublai) - Grandson of Genghis Khan, and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. He moved the capital to Beijing and settled there. In 1279, he defeated the Southern Song (960 - 1279). - 1260 - 1294 • 2nd Yuan Chengzong (Borjigin Temür) - Grandson of Kublai Khan; a conventional emperor - 1295 - 1307 • 3rd Yuan Wuzong(Borjigin Qayshan) - Nephew of Chengzong - 1308 - 1311 • 4th Yuan Renzong(Borjigin Ayurparibhadra) - Younger brother of Wuzong; he ascended the throne after Wuzong died - 1312 - 1320 • 5th Yuan Yingzong(Borjigin Suddhipala) - Son of Renzong; he was killed by political enemies in a coup. - 1321 - 1323 • 6th Taiding Di(Borjigin Yesün-Temür) - Grandson of Kublai Khan; an unremarkable emperor - 1324 - 1328 • 7th Tianshun Di(Borjigin Arigaba) - The youngest son of Taiding Di; he was placed on the throne following a coup, but ruled for only a month. - 1328 • 8th Yuan Wenzong(Borjigin Toq-Temür) - The second son of Wuzong; he died of illness in 1332. - 1328 - 1332 • 9th Yuan Mingzong(Borjigin Qoshila) - The eldest son of Wuzhong; He was poisoned by Wenzong and reigned for only eight months. - 1329 • 10th Yuan Ningzong(Borjigin Irinchibal) - The second son of Mingzong; after ruling for less than two months, he died of illness. - 1332 • 11th Yuan Huizong(Borjigin Toghan-Temür) - The eldest son of Mingzong; during his reign, the Hongjinjun Uprising broke out and subsequently the capital was captured by Zhu Yuanzhang. - 1333 - 1368 Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/yuan/
    •  In the area of science, astronomy, mathematics and medicine reached a very high level. In literature, the Yuan drama, along with the Tang poem and 'ci' poem of the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279), was considered another heritage of Chinese literature. Genghis Khan's Mausoleum, Baotou, Inner Mongolia Nadam Fair on Gegentala Grassland, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Statue of Genghis Khan Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/yuan/
    • • Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Hans. Ming was another peak in China’s dynastic history. It was established by Zhu Yuanzhang, Emperor Hongwu, who led the revolution against the Mongols and the Yuan Dynasty. • Zhu Yuanzhang, a great strategist and politician with a legendary life, reached his dream of emperor step by step. Instead of the traditional way of naming a dynasty after the first ruler's home district, Zhu's choice of “Ming” or “Brilliant” for his dynasty followed a Mongol precedent of an uplifting title. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/ming.htm
    • • 1st Ming Taizu / Emperor Hongwu(Zhu Yuanzhang) - Founder of the Ming Dynasty; once entered a monastery and later a leader of the peasant's uprising army. In 1368, he proclaimed himself emperor in Yingtian (today's Nanjing). - 1368 - 1398 • 2nd Ming Huizong(Zhu Yunwen) - Grandson of Zhu Yuanzhang; Originally, his father Zhu Biao was designated as the heir. He came to the throne because of Zhu Biao's early death. - 1399 - 1402 • 3rd Ming Chengzu(Zhu Di) - The fourth son of Zhu Yuanzhang; He usurped the throne by from the hands of Zhu Yunwen. His reign was said to be the most prosperous period of the Ming Dynasty. - 1403 - 1424 • 4th Ming Renzong(Zhu Gaochi ) - The eldest son of Zhu Di; His reign was short because of his early death. But he was remembered as an innovative emperor. - 1425 • 5th Ming Xuanzong(Zhu Zhanji) - Son of Emperor Renzong; ruled for ten years and died of illness - 1426 - 1435 • 6th Ming Yingzong(Zhu Qizhen) - Son of Emperor Xuanzong; He ascended the throne at eight and was later imprisoned by Mongols. After being house arrested for seven years, his launched a coup and regained his second reign. - 1436 - 1449,1457 - 1464 • 7th Ming Daizong(Zhu Qiyu) - Younger brother of Yingzong; He was put on the throne after his brother was captured by Mongols. - 1450 - 1457 • 8th Ming Xianzong(Zhu Jianshen) - Son of Emperor Yingzong; He ascended the throne at 17 and was once infatuated with a consort who was 19 years old than he was. - 1465 – 1487 • 9th Ming Xiaozong(Zhu Youtang) - Son of Emperor Xianzong; He was the sole perpetually monogamous emperor in the whole of Chinese history. - 1488 - 1505 Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/ming.htm
    • • 10th Ming Wuzong(Zhu Houzhao) - The eldest son of Emperor Xiaozong; He was irresponsible and indulged himself in playing with women. - 1506 - 1521 • 11th Ming Shizong(Zhu Houcong) - Cousin of Emperor Wuzong and nephew of Emperor Xiaozong; He was also infatuated with women as well as Taoist alchemical pursuits. - 1522 - 1566 • 12th Ming Muzong(Zhu Zaihou) - Son of Emperor Shizong; He was considered as an open-minded emperor since he used to adopt a series of positive policies the reverse the declining situation. - 1567 – 1572 • 13th Ming Shenzong(Zhu Yijun) - Son of Emperor Muzong; His reign was the longest one among the Ming emperors. He also received Matteo Ricci the first christian missionary. - 1573 - 1620 • 14th Ming Guangzong(Zhu Changluo) - The eldest son of Shenzong; His reign was less than a half year due to his mysterious death which was probably caused by the so-called red pills. - 1620 • 15th Ming Xizong(Zhu Youxiao) - The eldest son of Guangzong; He came to the throne at 15 and his reign was controlled by a treacherous court official named Wei Zhongxian. - 1621 - 1627 • 16th Ming Weizong(Zhu Youjian) - Son of Guangzong and younger brother of Xizong; He reign was thought to hasten the end of the Ming Dynasty. In 1644, he committed suicide in Jingshan Park after Li Zicheng captured Beijing. - 1628 - 1644 Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/ming.htm
    •  The Ming Dynasty was a period of cultural restoration and expansion. The reestablishment of an indigenous Han ruling house led to the imposition of court- dictated styles in culture.  In Ming painting, the traditions of both the Southern Song painting academy and the Yuan scholar-artist were developed further. Stone Camel on Sacred Way, Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Nanjing Badaling Great Wall, Ming Dynasty Statue of Zhu Di, the third emperor of Ming Dynasty Yongle Encyclopedia Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/ming.htm
    • • Qing Dynasty (1644-1911AD) was the last feudal dynasty in Chinese history drew to a close established by the Manchu People (Nuzhen People). Overview the 268 years of reign, there were altogether 11 emperors in addition to the ruling Emperor Taizong Huang Taiji in Shenyang. Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qing.htm
    • • 1st Emperor Taizu (Nurhachu) - Founder of the Latter Jin regime which later turned into the Qing regime; He created the military organization called Banner System. - 1616 - 1626 • 2nd Emperor Taizong (Huang Taiji) - The eighth son of Nurhachu; actually the first emperor of the Qing Dynasty. He moved the capital to Shenyang. - 1626 - 1643 • 3rd Emperor Shunzhi (Fulin) - Son of Huang Taiji; In his reign, the Qing army defeated the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644) and moved the capital into Beijing. - 1643 - 1661 • 4th Emperor Kangxi (Xuanye) - The third son of Emperor Shunzhi; One of the greatest emperors in the Qing Dynasty; His reign was the beginning of the heyday of the dynasty. - 1661 - 1722 • 5th Emperor Yongzheng (Yinzhen) - The fourth son of Emperor Kangxi; A fairly wise and competent emperor who maintained the prosperity of the Qing Dynasty - 1722 - 1735 • 6th Emperor Qianlong (Hongli) - Son of Emperor Yongzheng; Inheriting the prosperity brought by his predecessors, his reign reached the zenith. - 1735 - 1796 • 7th Emperor Jiaqing (Yongyan) - Son of Emperor Qianlong; He prosecuted the infamous corrupt official, He Shen, who used to be a favorite chancellor of Emperor Qianlong. - 1796 - 1820 • 8th Emperor Daoguang (Minning) - Son of Emperor Jiaqing; His reign saw the outbreak of the First Opium War in 1840, from which China entered the modern history. - 1820 - 1850 • 9th Emperor Xianfeng (Yizhu) - Son of Emperor Daoguang; In his reign, the Qing Dynasty apparently began to decline. The well-known Taiping Rebellion broke out in that period. - 1850 - 1861 Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qing.htm
    • • 10th Emperor Tongzhi (Zaichun) - Son of Emperor Xianfeng and Empress Dowager Cixi; died early - 1861 - 1875 • 11th Emperor Guangxu (Zaitian) - Grandson of Emperor Daoguang; a progressive emperor who tried lots of methods to save the declining Qing Dynasty - 1875 - 1908 • 12th Emperor Xuantong (Puyi) - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty and the last feudal monarch of China; He was imprisoned at Shenyang till 1959 when Chairman Mao remitted him. - 1908 - 1911 Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qing.htm
    •  By the middle of the 18th century, the feudal economy of the Qing Dynasty reached a zenith, spanning the reign of Emperor Kangxi, Emperor Yongzheng and Emperor Qianlong.  In that period, both culture and science were much more prosperous than any other periods. Forbidden City, Beijing Old Summer Palace was destroyed by British and French troop in 1860 Animal’s Head Summer Palace, Beijing Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qing.htm
    • • http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/timelines/china_timeline.htm • http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/china/tp/ChineseDynasties0 33009.htm • http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/chinadynasties/a/chinesedyn asty.htm • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Zhou_of_Shang • http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/ • http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/shang/ • http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/shang/ • http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/han/western.htm