• 221 – 207 BCEQin Dynasty • End of the Feudal System • Qin Shi Huangdi (First Emperor Qin) • First Emperor Qin was a legalist • Centralized Nonhereditary Bureaucratic System • Empire -> Province -> District • Spy System • Changes: (1) land was taken away from nobles, (2) introduction to weights, measures, money, written language and law, (3) new law code, (4) peasants are assign to work as a farmer or silk maker, (5) total censorship • No rebellion or revolts until the death of the first emperor • Start of implementation of Imperial System “A thousand may die so a million may live.”
Qin Dynasty The Great Wall of China • Keep off barbarian intrusion • Reaches from northeastern Heilongjiang Province to northwestern Gansu
Qin to Han Fall of Qin -> unstable empire after Qin Shi Huangdi’s death Xiang Yu of Chu vs. Liu Bang of Han • Two rebel leaders that fought for the leadership of China. • China fell apart into 18 kingdoms • Each kingdom chose sides Xiang Yu or Liu Bang • Xiang Yu proved to be a very good commander but Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu in the Battle of Gaixia in modern day Anhui. • Liu Bang became emperor and is known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu (r. 202–195 BCE). • Chang’an was chosen as the new capital of the reunified empire under Han.
Han Dynasty • Early / Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) • Later / Easter Han (25 – 220 CE )
DynastyEarly Han • 206 BCE – 9 CE • First dynasty to adopt Confucianism • Rebellion of the Seven States (154 BC) • Contributions: ü Paper: The writing of Chinese history. § Under Emperor Wudi ( 141 BCE – 87 BCE ), Sima Qian was born. He is the father of Chinese historiography. ü Porcelain ü The Silk Road: route of trade from China -> West (all the way to Rome)
Xin Dynasty • 9 – 24 CE • Wang Mang ( 9 CE – 23 CE ) o Nephew of Grand Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun. o Creative scholar and politician but he was an incompetent ruler. Decline - the capital, Chang’an was taken over by peasant rebels. • The descendants restored the Han dynasty.
• 25 – 220 CEDynastyLater Han • Liu Xu or Emperor Guang – wu ( 23 CE – 25 CE ) o Luoyang is the capital, east of Xian. • Contributions ü Shui Pai ü An official named Cai Lun improved the making of paper. ü Copper and bronze ü Zhang Heng created a special equipment which is considered to be the first seismograph in the world. ü Arts ( Caligraphy, pottery, etc. ) Decline - Yellow Turban Rebellion and Five Pecks of Rice rebellion ( 184 CE ). o The corrupt government.
Three Kingdoms ‒Period of Disunion • Wei 220 CE – 265 CE o Cao Pi or Emperor Wen of Wei o Luoyang • Shu 221 CE – 263 CE o Liu Bei • Wu 229 CE – 280 CE o Sun Quan or Emperor Da of Wu
Jin Dynasty • Western Jin Dynasty (265 CE – 317 CE) • Eastern Jin Dynasty (317 CE – 420 CE)
Dynasty • 265 CE – 317 CE Western Jin • Founded by Emperor Wu or Sima Yan • Provided a brief period of unity. • Decline - War of the Eight Princes o The Prince of Runan: Sima Liang, son of Sima Yi o The Prince of Chu: Sima Wei, the son of Emperor Wu o The Prince of Zhao: Sima Lun, son of Sima Yi o The Prince of Qi: Sima Jiong, nephew of Emperor Wu o The Prince of Chengdu: Sima Ying, son of Emperor Wu o The Prince of Changsha: Sima Ai, son of Emperor Wu o The Prince of Hejian: Sima Yong, distant cousin of Emperor Wu o The Prince of Donghai: Sima Yue, distant cousin of Emperor Wu
Dynasty Eastern Jin • 317 CE – 420 CE • Emperor Yuan of Jin or Sima Rui or Jingwen • There were rebellions all throughout this dynasty such as the rebellions of Generals Wang Dun and Su Jun. • VICTORY!!! Battle of Fei River • They were known for their celadon porcelain pottery.
Northern DynastySouthern and • 420 CE – 589 CE • A time of civil wars but the arts and culture was able to flourish. • Spread of Mahayana Buddhism and Daoism. • There were advances in medicine, mathematics, astronomy and cartography. • The Chinese pagoda tower evolved from the stupa.
Southern Dynasty • Liu Song (420–479) o Liu Yi • Southern Qi (479–502) o Emperor Gao • Liang (502–557) o Emperor Wu or Xiao Yan • Patron of the Arts and Buddhism • Confucian values and embraced Buddhism too. • Chen (557–589) o Emperor Wu of Chen
Northern Dynasty • The Rise of Northern Wei • Eastern Wei (534–550) • Western Wei (535–557) • Northern Qi (550–577) • Northern Zhou (557–581)
Sui Dynasty • • 589 – 618 CE Emperor Wen of Sui • It unified China for the first time in over a century. • The capital was at Chang’an which was renamed Daxing. • The Emperors Wen and Yang undertook reforms to get an Equal-field system, reducing the distance between rich- poor social gap. • Coinage was standardized. • Defense was improved and the Great Wall expanded. • The Great Canal • Buddhism is spread throughout the empire and was encouraged. • Three Departments and Six Ministries it replaced The Three Lords and Nine Ministers Decline - crushing taxes + labor + spending -> didn’t get to focus on the military campaign.
• 618 – 907 CETang Dynasty • Characterized by strength and brilliance that is unprecedented by any other • Imperial and local government • Control ranging from Korea, southern Manchuria, and Northern Vietnam • Tang influence was felt as far away as present-day Afghanistan • Strength came from a system of equal land allotments to the male population • Hsuan Tsung o Fell in love with a woman and neglected his duties o nepotism o An Li-shan had a quarrel with the woman’s brother – war o Generals withheld tax money and eventually created kingdoms from the land they were to protect.
• Many great poets emergedTang Dynasty o Li o Po o Tu Fu o Po Chu-i o Prose master: Han Yu • Printing of books and sharing of ideas promoted cultural unity • Buddhism declined, Confucianism became more popular o Many Tang officials were of the Confucian discipline and regarded Buddhism as a disruptive force in China o 845 – full scale persecution of Buddhists o 4600 monasteries and 40,000 temples were destroyed • Handicraft guilds and the use of paper money all started in the late Tang dynasty
DynastyNorthern Sung • 969 AD – 1126 AD • Made the military subordinate to the civil government • Re-organized the imperial government, centralizing the control of the dynasty at the capital • One major flaw: a weak military o Signed treaties to end fighting o Usually included in the treaties were stipulations requiring the Sung to pay tributes to the enemies they were fighting • Fell apart due to differences in opinions by the civil bureaucrats
DynastyNorthern Sung • 1069 – Wang An-shih was appointed as chief counselor o Proposed plans to increase government income, decrease spending, and strengthen military forces o Government’s wealth came from peasants o Implemented land reforms to give equal allotments of land to farmers, loans to cultivators to assist planting and harvesting, and a graduated tax on wealth o Some of his plan were not used due to bureaucratic opposition
DynastySouthern Sung • 1127 AD – 1279 AD • Made an alliance with Chin dynasty (1122-1234) of northern Manchuria • Economic and intellectual achievements increased while the former Song dynasty to the north slowly decayed • Downfall was due to many years of bitter fighting against a superior force • 1206 – Mongol tribes convened at Karakorum in Outer Mongolia to confirm Mongol unity under the command of Genghis Khan o Genghis Khan captured the Chin Dynasty • Southern Song was captured on 1279 – Kublai Khan took control
• 1279 – 1368 ADYuan Dynasty • Led by Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan’s grandson • Moved the Mongol capital from Karakorum to somewhere near Beijing • Mongol empire – stretched from Eastern Europe to Korea and from Northern Siberia to the northern rim of India • Mongols ruled as if they were Chinese • Most notable foreigner that visited during this was Marco Polo • There was resentment towards the Mongols by the Chinese o Chinese accepted them as rulers but resented the fact that they held back able Chinese due to the Confucianism tests. • 1371 – Chu Yuan-chang was successful in pushing the Mongols back into Mongolia
Ming Dynasty • 1368 – 1644 CE • Founded by Chu Yuan-chang • Literature became more important, schools were created, and the justice system was reformed • Great Wall of China and Grand Canal – were improved • Divided into 15 provinces • Three commissioners per province: o Finances o Military o Judicial matters • Financial commissioner was over-ruled by a governor in the later years of the dynasty
Ming Dynasty • First quarter of 15th century: Ming had decisively defeated the Mongol tribes • Middle of 15th century: Ming’s power started to decline • Imperial treasuries were being depleted by war • Downfall of Ming Dynasty was brought about by a rebellion due to the inability of the government to provide food in a time of famine
Dynasty • 1644 – 1912 CEManchu/Qing • China reached the highest point in its 2000-year history and collapsed from internal pressure along with pressures exerted by West • Manchus started to absorb the Chinese culture • Government: based on Ming and was more centralized • Regulated by a new institution called the Grand Council • By the end of 17th century: Manchus had effectively eliminated all of the Ming opposition and put down a rebellion led by Chinese generals that helped the manchus • This dynasty controlled: Manchuria, Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet
DynastyManchu/Qing • Nepal, Burma, Korea, Vietnam: recognized China as a major power • 18th century: time of unprecedented peace o Economic status of the Chinese peasant declined o Government’s funds depleted due to foreign expansion • Manchus accepted trade with the West o British, French, United States • British o Introduced Indian opium o Opium trade depleted Chinese silver reserves and gave the British a large advantage over all the other Chinese trading partners
When the Zhou people overthrew the last Shang king, theyhad to convince the other people, especially the nobles, thatthey are under their rule. The Zhou people told them thatthe gods in heaven had told that they were to rule only ifthey were ‘good rulers’.What is the Mandateof Heaven?
1. The right to rule is granted by Heaven. 2. There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler. 3. The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. 4. The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty.4 Principles
• Translates as central nation or middle kingdom• Sinocentrism• They believe that China is the center of the earth.Zhongguo
“The map is similar to many present-day Chinese world maps in that itpositions at the centre of the map China (which used self-confidentlyto refer to itself as the “Middle Kingdom”), and not Europe.”