Ancient china


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Ancient china

  1. 1. Ancient China The Imperial Age By Katrina Ward s0207400 Year 7 – Contacts and conflicts within and/or with societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, and the spread of philosophies and beliefs (ACDSEH043) Image retrieved from:
  2. 2. Warring States (475-221 B.C.) China did not exist thousands of years ago. The Chinese called themselves the ‘black-haired people’ and thought of their land as ‘All-Under-Heaven’. They didn’t know what lay past the sea to the east, the desert in the north, the jungles in the south or the mountains to the west. All-Under- Heaven was the whole world to these people. This world was divided into seven states, each with it’s own ruler. The warring states were called: Qin, Han, Zhao, Chu, Wei, Yan and Qi. The leaders of these states had been fighting each other for centuries. The conflict between the organised armies of the states was violent. The troops were led by brilliant leaders who would stop at nothing to win. More than 1.5 million soldiers were killed during the last one hundred and thirty years of that period. How do we know about the ancient past? In 221 B.C. the, King Zheng of Qin and his armies had conquered all of the states. The King Zheng was now ruler of All-Under-Heaven (Lloyd, 2010) Image retrieved from: (scroll down to ‘Maps of China and East Asia to learn more)
  3. 3. The Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) The First Emperor – King Zheng King Zheng established the new Qin dynasty and changed his name. He dubbed himself Qin Shi Huang Di (pronounced “sher-hwahng-der”), the “The First Emperor” After the surrender of the last warring state Qin Shi Huang Di built a grand new capital in Xianyang and made the former rulers of each conquered state move there so that he could keep an eye on them. He did not hand out land to his sons and army leaders. He gave money and presents instead. Qin Shi Huang Di brought peace to the states and would rule alone. How would life under the one ruler be better for the people? Image retrieved from: http://www.china- qin-dynasty/
  4. 4. The Qin Dynasty - continued (221-206 B.C.) The states had dissimilar writing, different weights and measurement, different coins, farming tools, ways of using bronze, burying the dead and various size carts and wheels Imagine the problems facing China’s first emperor as he sought to unite the states and provide a sense of nationhood. How would the first emperor deal with these differences? Weights and measures, currency and the written language were all standardized, setting the stage for lasting economic structure. The imperial system lasted without basic changes until 1911 A.D. (Veeck, Pannell, Smith & Huang, 2007). Images retrieved from: Image retrieved from: s/chin-qing.htm
  5. 5. The Qin Dynasty – continued (221-206 B.C.) Qin Shi Huang Di established many of the structures that allowed China to become a great empire. Among the many accomplishments of the emperor, huge construction projects were completed, including a road system, an early version of the Great Wall and the expansion and extension of the national canal network (Veeck, Pannell, Smith & Huang, 2007). How did these accomplishments result in the development of trade? Image retrieved from: qinshihuanggreatwall.htm Ruins of Qin Shi Huang Great Wall at Inner Mongolia. Image retrieved from: __Vzf5Rjc&feature=related Great Wall
  6. 6. The Qin Dynasty – continued (221-206 B.C.) The first emperor died in 210 B.C. and was buried in an underground palace beneath Mount Li surrounded by his army. One of the most impressive artefacts from the Qin period is the Terracotta Army guarding Qin Shi Huang's tomb in Xi'An. For what purpose did the emperor create the Terracotta Army and was this purpose served? Second Emperor – Qin Er Shi The second son of the first emperor, Er Shi ruled from 210 B.C. until his death in 206 B.C. Third Emperor – Grandson of Qin Shi Huang Di After reigning for only 46 days the first Chinese imperial dynasty was put to a definitive end by rebels. (Hollihan-Elliot, 2006) Liu Bang, leader of the rebels, became emperor of the new dynasty. Image retrieved from: http://history.cultural-
  7. 7. The Han Dynasty (207 B.C. – A.D. 220) First Emperor – Liu Bang Liu Bang was the leader of the rebellion against the Qin. He was a peasant but was a skilled soldier; he could not read or write but was good listener. The new emperors rule was less harsh; he rejected excessive punishment in favour of Confucianism Why was Confucius an important person in Chinese history? Although there was some time of rebellion during the reign of weak emperors, the Han dynasty lasted 400 years. The rebellion divided the dynasty into the ‘Earlier Han’ (206 B.C. –9 A.D.) and the ‘Later Han’ (25-220 A.D.). During the Han Dynasty, agriculture developed rapidly and ox ploughs and iron tools were widely used. Trade with the outside world began during the Han dynasty. The trade between China, the rest of Asia and Europe became known as the Silk Road. Industries based on early Chinese discoveries and inventions had a chance to develop. They included working metals like copper, bronze and iron, mining salt, making silk, pottery , lacquer ware and paper (Reynoldson, 1994). Image retrieved from: history/0132-qin-dynasty-ends.php
  8. 8. The Sui Dynasty (589-618 A.D. ) First Emperor – Yang Jian Yang Jian was born to the noble class and was the Prime Minister of the last emperor. He proclaimed himself Emperor Wen Di , meaning cultured emperor. After more than 350 years, China was once again reunited under one ruler (Veeck, Pannell, Smith & Huang, 2007). Wen Di encouraged Buddhism in China. Tell something you know about Buddhism and how it became part of the Chinese beliefs. Image retrieved from: http://history.cultural-
  9. 9. The Sui Dynasty – continued (589-618 A.D. ) Second Emperor –Yang Di Wen Di’s son, Yang, was ambitious. He set out to conquer the area known as Korea and forced hundreds and thousands to work on building new palaces for himself . He also decided to build a canal to join the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. The canal improved the growing of rice crops, so much so that new types of rice were being grown. Rice was needed to feed the people and farmers still paid their taxes to the emperor in grain. Yang Di’s taxes arrived on large barges, via the canal. The rice and other grains were stored in huge granaries known as the ‘ever ready granary system’. (Reynoldson, 1994) Why might canals be important to the development of a civilization? In 617 A.D. the Chinese people rebelled and the emperor was overthrown; a new dynasty was established (Shuter, 2007). Image retrieved from: 09/02/content_23343011_4.htm
  10. 10. The Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D. ) First Emperor – Li Yuan Li Yuan took the name Gaozu, meaning High Founder. He restored many policies of the original Sui Emperor Wen Di, reversing several changes implemented by Emperor Wang. He also relaxed the harsh laws of the region and worked to promote trade. After a short reign the emperor abdicated the throne in favour of his second son Li Shimin. Second Emperor – Li Shimin Li Shimin, who was dubbed emperor Taizong, ruled between 626-649 A.D. He did not spend a lot of money and was straight forward. The people liked him and were pleased that they were united under a strong dynasty again. The Tang Dynasty had a successful government system with an emphasis on education. The Tang rulers felt that a well-educated public was not a threat to authority, but rather, the basis for a stable, prosperous society. List the government systems that were re-established during the reign of Li Yuan. Image retrieved from: http://history.cultural- Li Yuan
  11. 11. The Tang Dynasty - continued (618-907 A.D.) Female Emperor – Wu Zhao The third emperor Gao Zong Fell in love with one of the second emperor’s concubines. Her name was Wu Zhao. He abandoned his wife and made Wu Zhao the empress. She immediately had the wife and one of the emperor’s favourite concubines murdered. She had complete control of the emperor by the time he died in 683 A.D. Two weak emperors reigned for a few years, but in 690 A.D. the second one was thrown out by Wu Zhao and she declared herself empress, making her the only female ruler in Chinese history. During her reign she changed the examination system for selecting local government representatives, so that people from poor backgrounds would have a chance to become officials (Reynoldson, 1994). Trade flourished in the Tang dynasty, it became the gateway to the West. Trains of hundreds of camels carrying porcelains and silks, followed the Silk Road. The merchants took Chinese ideas and brought back foreign ideas, religions, food and goods. ‘Flying Currency’ was introduced towards the end of the dynasty along with foot binding. Describe what is meant by ‘Flying Currency’ which began around 800 A.D. Image retrieved from: http://www.wome ninworldhistory.c om/heroine6.html
  12. 12. The Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.) First Emperor – Zhao Quangy Zhao Quangy was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers. He feared that other army generals would try to become emperor and attempted to avoid this by giving them large pensions and he detained them in the city where he could keep and eye on them. The emperor became worried about the economy of his empire and asked for suggestions. The emperor was so impressed with a list of ideas sent in by Wang Anshi he made him chief minister (Reynoldson, 1994). Wang Ansh’s new laws were implemented and he became one of the greatest officials of the Song Dynasty. Before the ministers resignation in 1076 A.D. he encouraged the development of gunpowder weapons and set up an arsenal to make the weapons. Before weapons, how was gunpowder used? Eighth Emperor – Sung Hui Tsung Sung Hui Tsung was a great patron of the arts, a famous painter and excellent calligrapher and because of this poetry, painting and education for nobles flourished. Unfortunately he was not a strong ruler. In 1127 A.D. a tribe called the Jin captured the emperor and his family ; they were never seen again. One prince named Gaozong, the ninth son of the emperor escaped imprisonment and settled in Hangzhou which became the capital of the Southern Song. Many outstanding scientific discoveries were made during the Song period and although the Song had lost half of China the richness of the Chinese civilization continued in the Southern Song for the next 100 years. Recipe for Gunpowder Retrieved from: http://kaleidoscope.cultural-
  13. 13. The Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368 A.D.) First Emperor – Kublai Khan Kublai Khan was the grandson of the great warrior Genghis Khan who led the Mongols during the invasion of northern China in 1215 A.D. When Kublai Khan took over the Song in southern China he named his dynasty Yuan because it means beginning (Deedrick, 2001). Although the Mongols continued to fight they eventually settled down to become Chinese and run China the way the Chinese had, allowing the Chinese people to rule in lower positions (Reynoldson, 1994). The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.) First Emperor – Ahu Yuanzhang The monk Ahu Yuanzhang led the army that chased the Mongols back to their land in the north. He named the dynasty Ming, meaning bright and shining. The Ming dynasty is known for it’s beautiful pottery and the construction of the Forbidden City where the emperors lived during the next two dynasties. The Ming government was over thrown by a series of peasant rebellions. Eventually the Manchus of the Mongolian grasslands defeated the peasant armies and established their own dynasty. (Deedrick, 2001) Retrieved from: aciv/painting/tptgyula.htm
  14. 14. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911 A.D.) Last of the Chinese Dynasties After the Manchu rulers seized control of China in 1644, they moved quickly to assert authority over the dominant Han Chinese population and established a dress code. Regulations codified dress for the imperial family, the Qing court and court officials, distinguishing the ruling elite and government from the general population. Women dressed according to the rank of their husbands. There were many achievements in the Qing dynasty but the most well known accomplishments during the was the tremendous growth of literature and the arts. The Last Emperor – Pu Yi Pu Yi was born in 1906 when the Qing dynasty was coming to its end. Emperor Guangxu’s wife, Ci Xi, imprisoned him and made herself the head of state. Guangxu died in November 1908 A.D. and Ci Xi, known as the Empress Dowager, chose two-year-old Pu Yi as the new emperor of China. She knew he was too young to rule, which meant that she would have more power. But the empress died just a few months later. When Pu Yi was five years old, China became a republic (a country with an elected government rather than one ruled by a king or queen), but the new government allowed him to carry on living in the Forbidden City (Tao, 2003). Discuss the legacies of ancient Chinese societies? Images Retrieved from:
  15. 15. References Deedrick, T. (1994). Ancient civilizations: China. Austin, New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers. Hollihan-Elliot, S. (2006). Ancient history of china. Philadelphia: Mason Crest Publishers Lloyd, A. (2010). Wicked warriors and evil emperors. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. Reynoldson, F. (1994). Imperial china. Oxford: Heinemann Publishers Ltd. Shuter, J. (2007). Ancient China: Time travel guides. London: Harcourt Education Ltd. Tao, W. (2003). Exploring History: China. London: Belitha Press Veeck, G., Pannell, C. W., Smith, C. J., & Huang, Y. (2007). China’s geography: Globalization and the dynamics of political, economic, and social change. USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, INC. Year 7 - Historical Knowledge and Understanding Contacts and conflicts within and/or with societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, and the spread of philosophies and beliefs (ACDSEH043)
  16. 16. The following websites were used in the creation of this Web Story: page.htm emperor/construction-projects qinshihuanggreatwall.htm http://www.cultural- empress.html hum/claypools09/Hum%20230%20Project/new_laws.html