MAP items: Be prepared to locate the following on a blank map of China withmodern boundaries (similar to the one you’ve seen on your weekly quizzes):BeijingGuangzhou (Canton)Hong KongManchuriaMongoliaNanjingShanghaiTaiwanTibetXinjiangThe Yellow RiverThe Yangzi RiverIDs. Be prepared to identify the following in a short paragraph (tell me who/whatit is; roughly when; and why it’s important to understanding Imperial China. Alldates should be accurate to within a century, unless otherwise indicated)WEEK 7Civil service examination systemJinshiWEEK 8Liao (Khitan) Dynasty – 907 – 1125 AD founded by Abaoji, rapidly adoptedChinese treaties, architecture, religion, and were often enthusiastic andcooperative with the Chinese they ruled over. Practiced pastoral steppenomadism. Shaved the top of their heads leaving only the hair by their ears andthe back. Abaoji throws away the khuriltai (congress) system of selecting a leaderand goes with the Chinese method of choosing his heir. Dual Administration withthe north (nomadic) and south (chinese) North was family appointed and Southwas civil service examination. Liao established five different capitals in Chinesestyle that they moved between throughout the year. 1004 Chinese sue for peaceand pay “gifts” of 1-2% of war expenses as tribute to the Khitans. In the end theynever became truly Chinese like the Jin dynasty will attempt to do and leave tocentral asia nomadically when the Jin take over.Jin (Jurchen) Dynasty – 1115 – 1234 founded by Aguda, from Manchuria, not thesteppe like the Khitan. Jin also demand payments, but much more serious and(300k oz ag, 1mn strings of coins, 300k bolts silk with dragon and phoenixembroidery, (patterns usually reserved for the emperor) also one-time paymentworth 180 annual payments. Letters between Jin and Southern Song have Jin as“elder uncle” and song as nephew. Slowly accept Chinese classical civilized wayssuch as Dao, Way, Confucius, through fits and starts. Yellow river moves,flooding, lost crops and revenue, lack of cooper and financial problems, Jineventually lose to the Mongols. Chinese historians would later argue that this
type of ruling was abnormal but actually it is the norm continuing on with theMongols and the Manchus.Mongols 1206 – Reign of Genghis Kan, 1234 – 1276 Mongols rule north China,1276 – 1368 Mongols rule all of China. Went from the steppe and conquered somany places, valued skill and loyalty over family. Were ruthless when necessarybut respected those who gave inLots of horses and maybe they kept on attackingso that they could get more lute to pacific their fighters and the rulers could keepon ruling?Chinggis (Genghis) Khan 1167 – 1227 – First ruler of the mongols, wasabandoned after his father died, fought his way up, and expanded into northernchina Russia and eastern Europe.Khuriltai – How leadership for many northern step people are decidedKhubilai Khan reign of 1260 – 1294 – First Yuan Dynasty emperor (Mongol)Yuan Dynasty 1276 – 1368 – Dynasty created from the rements of the largeMongol empire. Upper class chinese have little way of advancement but it createdmuch cultural vitality. Drama & arts went way up as scholar official civilexaminations were essentially unused and the use of vernacular started to beused more frequently. Simplify the examination system curriculum once it isreinstated which greatly influences later chinese dynasties as for some reason thissimplified test was kept. 1330s to end in 1368, serious plague and populaceproblems. Yuan lose. Also due to continual over-printing of paper money, by endof the Yuan China wholly reverts to copper and silver.WEEK 9Ming treasure fleet 1405 – 1433 – meant to demonstrate Yongle’s greatness,huge, advanced and sailed around the indian oceanZheng He – main captain of treasure fleets, Muslim eunuch, prisoner of warYongle Emperor – usurpers his nephew which died during the cue he led, 1402 –He rechanneled the grand canal, moved the capital, created the treasure fleets,and put together an amazing encyclopedia.Great Wall of China – fixated on defending against the ever present mongols inthe north a larger, longer great wall is truly started. The myth of the great wallwas started by Chinese historians looking back on Sima Qian’s histories of theQin dynasty.WEEK 10Menzies thesis – Chinese went around the world, etc. Not true. It’s popularfiction.WEEK 11Manchus Jurchen Peoples – started moving south into Chinese lands, but alsotook up Chinese ways. Nurhaci (born 1559) to a noble family increases power at
the expense of the other Jurchen and Mongol tribes around 1610 – 1620.Eight banners – The way that the Manchus organize their military in battle and ineveryday life. 1616 he declares himself “khan or ruler” of the 2nd Jin dynasty andattacks mixed Chinese/Jurchen settlements. He treats those he conquers veryfairly incorporating them into his cause or at least causing them no harm.Promises better rule after terrible neglect by Wanli. There are some revolts andNurhaci struggles to hold onto power. He dies and his 8th son Hong Taiji becomesruler of the Manchus. With the help of Chinese support that he supports verystrongly allows him to take over more previously Chinese area. Hong Taiji createsanother 8 banner system for the Chinese. (1640s) 1636, Hong Taiki renames hisdynasty Qing to escape the memories of servitude to the Ming Dynasty. Alsocreated the word Manchu to describe his peoples. 1638 China is falling apart andRebels 1644 take Peking. General Wu Sangui goes to defend against the rebels,the Qing march down and eventually the Wu Sangui sides with Dorgon instead ofRebel Li Zicheng, blah blah blah, the Manchus fight Ming Loyalists anddecendents in the south until rue is solidified in 1662Li ZichengWu SanguiKoxinga (Zheng Chenggong)Qing DynastyqueueWEEK 12-13JesuitsChinese rites controversyMacartney MissionGreat DivergenceWEEK 14Canton or cohong systemCommissioner Lin ZexuThe Opium War (aka the First Opium War)Treaty of NanjingTreaty portsWEEK 15HakkaTaiping RebellionHong XiuquanEmpress Dowager CixiXinhai RevolutionESSAYS: I will ask TWO (2) of the following questions, from which you willchoose ONE (1) to answer in essay form.*Evaluate this statement: the imperial civil service examination system wasdesigned to make Chinese government meritocratic, and it succeeded in this
regard. A successful answer will demonstrate a good grasp of how the examsystem developed and how it worked, and will support the argument withprimary sources we have read for class.*Is the Menzies thesis about the voyages of the Ming treasure fleet convincing?Why or why not? To answer successfully, you will need to accurately describe thethesis and discuss, clearly and with reference to specifics, why it convinces or failsto convince.*How did the relationship between the Qing Empire and Western powers changebetween the late eighteenth century and the turn of the twentieth century, andwhat caused the change? A successful answer will support the argument withdetails from primary sources we’ve read for class.*Evaluate this statement: Han Chinese saw the Manchus who ruled China fromthe mid-seventeenth century to the early twentieth century as foreign conquerorsoppressing native Han culture, not legitimate rulers of China. A successfulanswer will demonstrate a broad understanding of Qing Dynasty history and willsupport the argument with primary sources we’ve read for class.