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  • 1. Chemistry Chapter 3 - Section 2 Solubility Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 2. Water – The Universal SolventWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 3. Water – The Universal Solvent •Many solutions have water as the solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 4. Water – The Universal Solvent •Many solutions have water as the solvent. •These solutions are called an aqueous solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 5. Water – The Universal Solvent •Many solutions have water as the solvent. •These solutions are called an aqueous solution. •Water dissolves many solutes and so scientists call it the universal solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 6. Water – The Universal Solvent •Many solutions have water as the solvent. •These solutions are called an aqueous solution. •Water dissolves many solutes and so scientists call it the universal solvent. •Why is water such a great solvent? Let’s find out.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 7. Molecular Compounds - Sharing is CaringWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 8. Molecular Compounds – Polar or NonpolarWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 9. Ionic BondingWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 10. How Water Dissolves Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 11. How Water Dissolves Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 12. How Water Dissolves Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 13. How Water Dissolves Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 14. Ionic Bonds www.inquiryinaction.org/chemistryreview/solids/#dissolving_saltWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 15. How Water Dissolves Molecular CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 16. Dissolving Molecular CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 17. Molecular Bonds http://www.inquiryinaction.org/chemistryreview/water/Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 18. What will dissolve? The spoon or the sugar??Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 19. Like Dissolves LikeWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 20. Like Dissolves LikeWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 21. Like Dissolves Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 22. Like Dissolves Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.•Nonpolar solvents will dissolve nonpolarsolutes.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 23. Like Dissolves Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.•Nonpolar solvents will dissolve nonpolarsolutes.•Polar will not dissolves nonpolar and vice versa.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 24. Like Dissolves Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.•Nonpolar solvents will dissolve nonpolarsolutes.•Polar will not dissolves nonpolar and vice versa.•Think about oil and water. Is the oil polar ornonpolar?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 25. How Much Will Dissolve?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 26. How Much Will Dissolve?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 27. How Much Will Dissolve?•If you tried to dissolve a lot of sugar in a small glassof water, not all of the sugar would dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 28. How Much Will Dissolve?•If you tried to dissolve a lot of sugar in a small glassof water, not all of the sugar would dissolve.•Solubility is the measurement of how muchsolute dissolves in a given amount of solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 29. How Much Will Dissolve?•If you tried to dissolve a lot of sugar in a small glassof water, not all of the sugar would dissolve.•Solubility is the measurement of how muchsolute dissolves in a given amount of solvent.•Solubility is usually describes as how much candissolve in 100g of solvent at a given temperature.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 30. Solubility in a Liquid-Solid SolutionWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 31. Solubility in a Liquid-Solid Solution Temperature is included here because the solubility of a solute changes as the temperature of the solvent changes.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 32. Solubility in a Liquid-Solid SolutionWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 33. Solubility in a Liquid-Solid Solution As you heat water, you can dissolve sugar in water faster rate, but also more sugar will dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 34. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas SolutionWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 35. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas Solution In a liquid-gas solution, the opposite is true.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 36. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas Solution In a liquid-gas solution, the opposite is true. As the temperature increases, the solubility decreases.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 37. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas SolutionWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 38. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas Solution This is because the water molecules will be moving faster at higher temperatures. This movement will bump the gas out of the solution, therefore decreases solubility.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 39. Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 40. Saturated Solutions •If you add calcium carbonate to 100g of water at 25˚C, only 0.0014g will dissolve. No more can dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 41. Saturated Solutions •If you add calcium carbonate to 100g of water at 25˚C, only 0.0014g will dissolve. No more can dissolve. •This solution is called a saturated solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 42. Saturated Solutions •If you add calcium carbonate to 100g of water at 25˚C, only 0.0014g will dissolve. No more can dissolve. •This solution is called a saturated solution. •If the solution was a liquid- solid solution, the extra solid would settle on the bottom of the container.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 43. Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 44. Saturated Solutions •The solubility of sugar in 100g of water at 25˚C is 204g.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 45. Saturated Solutions •The solubility of sugar in 100g of water at 25˚C is 204g. •If you had a solution with 50g of sugar in 100g of water, the solution is called unsaturated. More solute could dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 46. Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 47. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 48. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one. •If a saturated solution cools, some of the solute can fall out of the solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 49. Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 50. Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 51. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 52. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one. •If a saturated solution cools, some of the solute can fall out of the solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 53. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one. •If a saturated solution cools, some of the solute can fall out of the solution. • But if the solution is cooled slowly, sometimes the excess solute remains dissolved for a period of time. This solution is called supersaturated.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 54. Rate of DissolvingWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 55. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 56. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 57. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when:Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 58. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirredWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 59. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shakenWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 60. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shaken ✴the temperature is increasedWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 61. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shaken ✴the temperature is increased •How exactly do these factors help?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 62. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shaken ✴the temperature is increased •How exactly do these factors help? ✴They increase the rate at which the surfaces of the solute come into contact with the solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 63. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shaken ✴the temperature is increased •How exactly do these factors help? ✴They increase the rate at which the surfaces of the solute come into contact with the solvent. ✴Increasing the area of contact between the solute and the solvent can also increase the rate of dissolvingWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 64. Concentrated!Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 65. Concentrated! •The concentration of a solution tells you how much solute is present compared to the amount of solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 66. Concentrated! •The concentration of a solution tells you how much solute is present compared to the amount of solvent. •When you are comparing the concentrations of two solutions with the same type of solute and solvent, you can use a simple description such as: dilute or concentrated.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 67. Concentrated! •The Dead Sea is 5+ times saltier than Earths oceans. As water evaporates, salt is left behind. When the saturation point is reached, the salt forms these pillars.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 68. Measuring Concentrations •One way to give the concentration is by using the percentage of the volume of the solution that is made up of the solute.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 69. Effects on Solute Particles •Solute particles affect the physical properties of the solvent, such as the boiling point or the freezing point.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 70. Effects on Solute Particles •Adding a solute, such as NaCl, changes the way the water molecules can arrange themselves. The solute gets in the way.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 71. Effects on Solute Particles •To overcome this interference of the solute, a lower temperature is needed for the solvent to freeze.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 72. Effects on Solute Particles •When a solvent begins to boil, the solvent molecules are gaining enough energy to move from the liquid state to the gaseous state.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 73. Effects on Solute Particles •When a solute is introduced, its particles interfere with the evaporation of the solvent particles.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 74. Effects on Solute Particles •For water and NaCl, the NaCl will block the H2O from escaping the liquid and becoming a gas.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 75. Effects on Solute Particles •More energy is needed for the solvent particles to escape from the liquid, and the boiling point of the solution will be higher.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 76. Finished!Wednesday, July 11, 2012