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Chemistry                           Chapter 3 - Section 2                                          Solubility             ...
Water – The Universal SolventWednesday, July 11, 2012
Water – The Universal Solvent                           •Many solutions have water as                           the solven...
Water – The Universal Solvent                           •Many solutions have water as                           the solven...
Water – The Universal Solvent                           •Many solutions have water as                           the solven...
Water – The Universal Solvent                           •Many solutions have water as                           the solven...
Molecular Compounds -                  Sharing is CaringWednesday, July 11, 2012
Molecular Compounds –                  Polar or NonpolarWednesday, July 11, 2012
Ionic BondingWednesday, July 11, 2012
How Water Dissolves                        Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
How Water Dissolves                        Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
How Water Dissolves                        Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
How Water Dissolves                        Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
Ionic Bonds                           www.inquiryinaction.org/chemistryreview/solids/#dissolving_saltWednesday, July 11, 2...
How Water Dissolves                    Molecular CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
Dissolving                    Molecular CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
Molecular Bonds                                http://www.inquiryinaction.org/chemistryreview/water/Wednesday, July 11, 2012
What will                           dissolve?                           The spoon                             or the      ...
Like Dissolves LikeWednesday, July 11, 2012
Like                           Dissolves                              LikeWednesday, July 11, 2012
Like                           Dissolves                              Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.Wedn...
Like                           Dissolves                              Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.•Non...
Like                           Dissolves                              Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.•Non...
Like                           Dissolves                              Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.•Non...
How Much Will                             Dissolve?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
How Much Will                             Dissolve?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
How Much Will                             Dissolve?•If you tried to dissolve a lot of sugar in a small glassof water, not ...
How Much Will                             Dissolve?•If you tried to dissolve a lot of sugar in a small glassof water, not ...
How Much Will                             Dissolve?•If you tried to dissolve a lot of sugar in a small glassof water, not ...
Solubility                               in a                           Liquid-Solid                             SolutionW...
Solubility                               in a                           Liquid-Solid                             Solution ...
Solubility                               in a                           Liquid-Solid                             SolutionW...
Solubility                               in a                           Liquid-Solid                             Solution ...
Solubility                               in a                           Liquid-Gas                            SolutionWedn...
Solubility                                in a                            Liquid-Gas                             Solution ...
Solubility                                in a                            Liquid-Gas                             Solution ...
Solubility                               in a                           Liquid-Gas                            SolutionWedn...
Solubility                                in a                            Liquid-Gas                             Solution ...
Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
Saturated Solutions    •If you add calcium    carbonate to 100g of water    at 25˚C, only 0.0014g will    dissolve. No mor...
Saturated Solutions    •If you add calcium    carbonate to 100g of water    at 25˚C, only 0.0014g will    dissolve. No mor...
Saturated Solutions    •If you add calcium    carbonate to 100g of water    at 25˚C, only 0.0014g will    dissolve. No mor...
Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
Saturated Solutions     •The solubility of sugar in 100g of water at     25˚C is 204g.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Saturated Solutions     •The solubility of sugar in 100g of water at     25˚C is 204g.     •If you had a solution with 50g...
Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
Saturated Solutions     •A hot solvent can     usually hold more     solute then a     cooler one.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Saturated Solutions     •A hot solvent can     usually hold more     solute then a     cooler one.     •If a saturated    ...
Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
Saturated Solutions   •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then   a cooler one.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Saturated Solutions   •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then   a cooler one.   •If a saturated solution cools, s...
Saturated Solutions   •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then   a cooler one.   •If a saturated solution cools, s...
Rate of DissolvingWednesday, July 11, 2012
Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, oth...
Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, oth...
Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, oth...
Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, oth...
Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, oth...
Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, oth...
Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, oth...
Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, oth...
Concentrated!Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Concentrated!   •The concentration of a solution tells you how   much solute is present compared to the amount of   solven...
Concentrated!   •The concentration of a solution tells you how   much solute is present compared to the amount of   solven...
Concentrated!   •The Dead Sea is   5+ times saltier than   Earths oceans. As   water evaporates,   salt is left behind.   ...
Measuring          Concentrations       •One way to give the       concentration is by using the       percentage of the v...
Effects on Solute Particles       •Solute particles affect the physical properties       of the solvent, such as the boili...
Effects on Solute Particles     •Adding a solute, such as NaCl, changes the way     the water molecules can arrange themse...
Effects on Solute Particles       •To overcome this interference of the solute, a       lower temperature is needed for th...
Effects on Solute Particles             •When a solvent begins to boil, the solvent             molecules are gaining enou...
Effects on Solute Particles             •When a solute is introduced, its particles             interfere with the evapora...
Effects on Solute Particles             •For water and NaCl, the NaCl will block the             H2O from escaping the liq...
Effects on Solute Particles             •More energy is needed for the solvent             particles to escape from the li...
Finished!Wednesday, July 11, 2012
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Chemistry 3.2

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Transcript of "Chemistry 3.2"

  1. 1. Chemistry Chapter 3 - Section 2 Solubility Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  2. 2. Water – The Universal SolventWednesday, July 11, 2012
  3. 3. Water – The Universal Solvent •Many solutions have water as the solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  4. 4. Water – The Universal Solvent •Many solutions have water as the solvent. •These solutions are called an aqueous solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  5. 5. Water – The Universal Solvent •Many solutions have water as the solvent. •These solutions are called an aqueous solution. •Water dissolves many solutes and so scientists call it the universal solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  6. 6. Water – The Universal Solvent •Many solutions have water as the solvent. •These solutions are called an aqueous solution. •Water dissolves many solutes and so scientists call it the universal solvent. •Why is water such a great solvent? Let’s find out.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  7. 7. Molecular Compounds - Sharing is CaringWednesday, July 11, 2012
  8. 8. Molecular Compounds – Polar or NonpolarWednesday, July 11, 2012
  9. 9. Ionic BondingWednesday, July 11, 2012
  10. 10. How Water Dissolves Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  11. 11. How Water Dissolves Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  12. 12. How Water Dissolves Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  13. 13. How Water Dissolves Ionic CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  14. 14. Ionic Bonds www.inquiryinaction.org/chemistryreview/solids/#dissolving_saltWednesday, July 11, 2012
  15. 15. How Water Dissolves Molecular CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  16. 16. Dissolving Molecular CompoundsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  17. 17. Molecular Bonds http://www.inquiryinaction.org/chemistryreview/water/Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  18. 18. What will dissolve? The spoon or the sugar??Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  19. 19. Like Dissolves LikeWednesday, July 11, 2012
  20. 20. Like Dissolves LikeWednesday, July 11, 2012
  21. 21. Like Dissolves Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  22. 22. Like Dissolves Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.•Nonpolar solvents will dissolve nonpolarsolutes.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  23. 23. Like Dissolves Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.•Nonpolar solvents will dissolve nonpolarsolutes.•Polar will not dissolves nonpolar and vice versa.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  24. 24. Like Dissolves Like•Polar solvents will dissolve polar solutes.•Nonpolar solvents will dissolve nonpolarsolutes.•Polar will not dissolves nonpolar and vice versa.•Think about oil and water. Is the oil polar ornonpolar?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  25. 25. How Much Will Dissolve?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  26. 26. How Much Will Dissolve?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  27. 27. How Much Will Dissolve?•If you tried to dissolve a lot of sugar in a small glassof water, not all of the sugar would dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  28. 28. How Much Will Dissolve?•If you tried to dissolve a lot of sugar in a small glassof water, not all of the sugar would dissolve.•Solubility is the measurement of how muchsolute dissolves in a given amount of solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  29. 29. How Much Will Dissolve?•If you tried to dissolve a lot of sugar in a small glassof water, not all of the sugar would dissolve.•Solubility is the measurement of how muchsolute dissolves in a given amount of solvent.•Solubility is usually describes as how much candissolve in 100g of solvent at a given temperature.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  30. 30. Solubility in a Liquid-Solid SolutionWednesday, July 11, 2012
  31. 31. Solubility in a Liquid-Solid Solution Temperature is included here because the solubility of a solute changes as the temperature of the solvent changes.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  32. 32. Solubility in a Liquid-Solid SolutionWednesday, July 11, 2012
  33. 33. Solubility in a Liquid-Solid Solution As you heat water, you can dissolve sugar in water faster rate, but also more sugar will dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  34. 34. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas SolutionWednesday, July 11, 2012
  35. 35. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas Solution In a liquid-gas solution, the opposite is true.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  36. 36. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas Solution In a liquid-gas solution, the opposite is true. As the temperature increases, the solubility decreases.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  37. 37. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas SolutionWednesday, July 11, 2012
  38. 38. Solubility in a Liquid-Gas Solution This is because the water molecules will be moving faster at higher temperatures. This movement will bump the gas out of the solution, therefore decreases solubility.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  39. 39. Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  40. 40. Saturated Solutions •If you add calcium carbonate to 100g of water at 25˚C, only 0.0014g will dissolve. No more can dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  41. 41. Saturated Solutions •If you add calcium carbonate to 100g of water at 25˚C, only 0.0014g will dissolve. No more can dissolve. •This solution is called a saturated solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  42. 42. Saturated Solutions •If you add calcium carbonate to 100g of water at 25˚C, only 0.0014g will dissolve. No more can dissolve. •This solution is called a saturated solution. •If the solution was a liquid- solid solution, the extra solid would settle on the bottom of the container.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  43. 43. Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  44. 44. Saturated Solutions •The solubility of sugar in 100g of water at 25˚C is 204g.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  45. 45. Saturated Solutions •The solubility of sugar in 100g of water at 25˚C is 204g. •If you had a solution with 50g of sugar in 100g of water, the solution is called unsaturated. More solute could dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  46. 46. Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  47. 47. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  48. 48. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one. •If a saturated solution cools, some of the solute can fall out of the solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  49. 49. Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  50. 50. Saturated SolutionsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  51. 51. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  52. 52. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one. •If a saturated solution cools, some of the solute can fall out of the solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  53. 53. Saturated Solutions •A hot solvent can usually hold more solute then a cooler one. •If a saturated solution cools, some of the solute can fall out of the solution. • But if the solution is cooled slowly, sometimes the excess solute remains dissolved for a period of time. This solution is called supersaturated.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  54. 54. Rate of DissolvingWednesday, July 11, 2012
  55. 55. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  56. 56. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  57. 57. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when:Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  58. 58. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirredWednesday, July 11, 2012
  59. 59. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shakenWednesday, July 11, 2012
  60. 60. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shaken ✴the temperature is increasedWednesday, July 11, 2012
  61. 61. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shaken ✴the temperature is increased •How exactly do these factors help?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  62. 62. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shaken ✴the temperature is increased •How exactly do these factors help? ✴They increase the rate at which the surfaces of the solute come into contact with the solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  63. 63. Rate of Dissolving •Solubility does not tell you how fast a solute will dissolve. •Some solutes will dissolve quickly, others take a long time to dissolve. •A solution dissolves faster when: ✴it is stirred ✴it is shaken ✴the temperature is increased •How exactly do these factors help? ✴They increase the rate at which the surfaces of the solute come into contact with the solvent. ✴Increasing the area of contact between the solute and the solvent can also increase the rate of dissolvingWednesday, July 11, 2012
  64. 64. Concentrated!Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  65. 65. Concentrated! •The concentration of a solution tells you how much solute is present compared to the amount of solvent.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  66. 66. Concentrated! •The concentration of a solution tells you how much solute is present compared to the amount of solvent. •When you are comparing the concentrations of two solutions with the same type of solute and solvent, you can use a simple description such as: dilute or concentrated.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  67. 67. Concentrated! •The Dead Sea is 5+ times saltier than Earths oceans. As water evaporates, salt is left behind. When the saturation point is reached, the salt forms these pillars.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  68. 68. Measuring Concentrations •One way to give the concentration is by using the percentage of the volume of the solution that is made up of the solute.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  69. 69. Effects on Solute Particles •Solute particles affect the physical properties of the solvent, such as the boiling point or the freezing point.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  70. 70. Effects on Solute Particles •Adding a solute, such as NaCl, changes the way the water molecules can arrange themselves. The solute gets in the way.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  71. 71. Effects on Solute Particles •To overcome this interference of the solute, a lower temperature is needed for the solvent to freeze.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  72. 72. Effects on Solute Particles •When a solvent begins to boil, the solvent molecules are gaining enough energy to move from the liquid state to the gaseous state.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  73. 73. Effects on Solute Particles •When a solute is introduced, its particles interfere with the evaporation of the solvent particles.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  74. 74. Effects on Solute Particles •For water and NaCl, the NaCl will block the H2O from escaping the liquid and becoming a gas.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  75. 75. Effects on Solute Particles •More energy is needed for the solvent particles to escape from the liquid, and the boiling point of the solution will be higher.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  76. 76. Finished!Wednesday, July 11, 2012
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