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  1. 1. Listening<br /><br />
  2. 2. Startwith a listening –<br />Lead in<br />Pre-teachvocab<br />Gisttask<br />Detailedtask<br />Follow Up speaking<br />Me discussingtheformat of thecoursewith Fran forexample?<br />Focusontheskillsdevelopedbythequestions<br />Whatstrategiesdidyou use tocompensate?<br />Field’sdistinction<br />R&R’stasksclassification<br /><br />
  3. 3. Subskills are seen as competencies which native speakers possess and non-natives need to acquire….. They involve mastering the auditory phonetics, the word identification techniques, the patterns of reference, and the distribution of information which occur in the target language.<br /><br />
  4. 4. Strategies, by contrast are strictly compensatory: as the listeners ability improves, they are required less and less. Because such compensatory strategies are already available in L1, the goal is to ensure they are transferred in L2 and applied in a controlled way.<br />John Field “ Skills and Strategies: towards a new methodology for listening” ELT Journal 52/2 April 1998 <br /><br />
  5. 5. 1st drivinglesson<br />Interactional<br />Bottom Up<br />Top Down<br />Transactional<br /><br />
  6. 6. Top down V Bottom Up<br />Interactional V Transactional<br />Interactional<br />Bottom Up<br />Top Down<br />Transactional<br /><br />
  7. 7. CocktailPartybanter<br />Interactional<br />Bottom Up<br />Top Down<br />Transactional<br /><br />
  8. 8. Air traveller<br />Interactional<br />Bottom Up<br />Top Down<br />Transactional<br /><br />
  9. 9. A badjoke<br />Interactional<br />Bottom Up<br />Top Down<br />Transactional<br /><br />
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