BUS137 Chapter 12


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BUS137 Chapter 12

  1. 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>L01: Advantages of two-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>L02: Communication problems to avoid </li></ul><ul><li>L03: How to become a better “sender” and “receiver” of information </li></ul>
  3. 3. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the of shared symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One-Way Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information flows in only one direction – from sender to receiver, no feedback loop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two-Way Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information flows in two directions - receiver provides feedback, and sender is receptive to feedback </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Interpersonal Communication Pitfalls <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process of receiving and interpreting information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Verbal Behavior <ul><li>Clear, slow speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enunciate each word. Do not use colloquial expressions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat each important idea using different words to explain the same concept. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid compound, long sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active verbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid passive verbs. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nonverbal Behavior <ul><li>Visual restatements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use as many visual restatements as possible, such as pictures, graphs, tables, and slides. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use more facial and appropriate hand gestures to emphasize meaning of words. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act out as many themes as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pauses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pause more frequently. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summaries </li></ul><ul><li>Hand out written summaries of your verbal presentation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Accurate Information <ul><li>Silence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not jump in to fill the silence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not equate poor grammar and mispronunciation with lack of intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If unsure, assume difference, not similarity. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Comprehension <ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not just assume that they understand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checking comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have colleagues repeat their understanding of material back to you. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Design <ul><li>Breaks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take more frequent breaks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide material to be presented into smaller modules. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longer time frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocate more time for each module than you usually need for presenting same material to native speakers of your language. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Motivation <ul><li>Encouragement. Verbally and nonverbally encourage and reinforce speaking by nonnative-language participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing out. Explicitly draw out marginal and passive participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement. Do not embarrass novice speakers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Various Channels of Communication <ul><li>Oral communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>face-to-face & telephone conversations, formal presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>email, memos, letters, reports, computer files, & other written documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are advantages and disadvantages of oral and written communication </li></ul>
  12. 12. Electronic Media <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible and efficient channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce time and expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to work virtually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of “richer” media for complex or critical messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in solving some complex problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less suitable for confidential information, conflict management, and negotiating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic overload </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Improving Communication Skills <ul><li>Senders can improve their: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Improving Presentations <ul><li>Spend adequate time on the content of the presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly understand the objective of the presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the audience the purpose of the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide meaning, not just data. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice, practice, practice </li></ul>
  15. 15. Improving Presentations (cont’d) <ul><li>Remember that a presentation is more like a conversation than a speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the incredible power of eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow imperfection. </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to answer tough questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a crisp wrap-up. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Improving Writing & Language Skills <ul><li>Correct spelling, punctuation, & grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to a dictionary or thesaurus when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Think through message you want to convey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make it clear and logical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make message organized, readable, and succinct </li></ul><ul><li>Put it away and let it simmer </li></ul><ul><li>Revise 1st draft; delete unnecessary words, sentences, and paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>Use jargon appropriately. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Improving Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Use time appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Make your office arrangement conducive to open communication </li></ul><ul><li>Remember your body language </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the difference in nonverbal signals in different countries </li></ul>
  18. 18. Improving Listening Skills <ul><li>Find an area of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Judge content, not delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Hold your fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict distraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise your mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your mind open. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize on thought speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Work at listening. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Improving Reading Skills <ul><li>Read memos and e-mail as soon as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Skim most messages, but carefully read important messages </li></ul><ul><li>Consider taking courses to improve your reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Read materials outside of your immediate concern or area </li></ul>
  20. 20. Improving Observing & Interpreting Skills <ul><li>Practice reading the nonverbal cues of your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Become aware of cultural differences to minimize misinterpretations </li></ul>
  21. 22. YOU should be able to <ul><li>L01: Discuss important advantages of two-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>L02: Identify communication problems to avoid </li></ul><ul><li>L03: Describe when and how to use various communication channels </li></ul>
  22. 23. YOU should be able to <ul><li>L04: Summarize ways to become a better “sender” and “receiver” of information </li></ul><ul><li>L05: Explain how to improve downward, upward, and horizontal communication </li></ul><ul><li>L06: Summarize how to work with the company grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>L07: Describe the boundaryless organization and its advantages </li></ul>
  23. 25. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Read the story on page 268 </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Accountability International uses several methods to gets its “Think Outside the Bottle” message across. Identify which methods demonstrate one-way communication (from CAI to the public) and which demonstrate two-way communication (between CAI to the public). </li></ul><ul><li>The group uses a variety of communication channels or mechanisms to educate consumers about bottled versus tap water. List as many as you can. Which do you think are most effective, and why? </li></ul>
  24. 26. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Which of the following might demonstrate top management support and commitment to managing diversity? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Affirmative action programs to recruit minority members </li></ul><ul><li>B) Integration of corporate facilities (i.e. disabled access) </li></ul><ul><li>C) Establishment of support groups </li></ul><ul><li>D) Linking management compensation to diversity efforts </li></ul><ul><li>E) Adhering to all civil rights legislation </li></ul>
  25. 27. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Which of the following is NOT likely to facilitate </li></ul><ul><li>effective communication with someone who speaks a </li></ul><ul><li>different language? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Take frequent breaks </li></ul><ul><li>B) use many visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>C) Use hand and facial gestures </li></ul><ul><li>D) Repeat important ideas in alternative ways </li></ul><ul><li>E) Use passive verbs </li></ul>
  26. 28. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Improving your sender skills includes which of </li></ul><ul><li>the following? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Making persuasive presentations </li></ul><ul><li>B) Writing </li></ul><ul><li>C) Language use </li></ul><ul><li>D) Sending nonverbal messages </li></ul><ul><li>E) All of the above. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Coordination, conflict resolution and social </li></ul><ul><li>support are all important functions of: </li></ul><ul><li>A) vertical communication. </li></ul><ul><li>B) horizontal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>C) downward communication. </li></ul><ul><li>D) upward communication. </li></ul><ul><li>E) staff communication. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>XYZ Corporation is an organization where information </li></ul><ul><li>is available as needed, moving quickly and easily </li></ul><ul><li>enough so that the organization functions far better as </li></ul><ul><li>a whole team than as separate parts. XYZ Corporation can best </li></ul><ul><li>be described as which type of organization? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Vertical </li></ul><ul><li>B) Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>C) Downward </li></ul><ul><li>D) Upward </li></ul><ul><li>E) Boundaryless </li></ul>