The Art School of Madrid, La Academia de San Fernando was the place choosed by Dali’s father to consolidate the education of his son. He accepted his son’s desires but on the condition that he lived in La Residencia de Estudiantes (Studient Residence) where he arrived in 1922, after his mother death in 1921.
During the first half of the twentieth century, the Residence was a prestigious cultural institution that created the intellectual environment of Spain's brightest young thinkers, writers, and artists. . Members of the Generación del 98 and Generación del 27, visited, studied and lectured at the Residence. The Residence was also visited by many famous teachers and reserchers as… Marie Curie Le Corbusier Albert Einstein
The mission of the Residencia was to complement university education by fostering an exciting intellectual and living environment for its students. It strongly encouraged the constant dialogue between Science and the Arts, welcome the avant-garde ideas from abroad, and became the focal point for spreading modernity in Spain. The intellectuals at the Residencia de Estudiantes also began an institution known as tertulias - groups of artists and writers who would gather together daily, during day or night, at cafes, bars and houses to discuss their ideas and opinions. The Residencia de Estudiantes was one of the most important institutions of the time because it allowed the great thinkers of the time to come together and fullfil their ideas.
The Generación del 98 was a group of novelist, poets and philosophers active at the time of the Spanish – American War in 1898. The name Generación del 98 was coined by Jose Martinez Ruiz, commonly known as Azorín, in his 1913 essays titled “La generación de 1898,” alluding to the moral, political, and social crisis in Spain produced by the disaster and the loss of the colonies of Cube, Puerto Rico and the Philipines after defeat in the Spanis-America War that same year. Some members of «la Generación del 98» that visited the Residence… Ramón María del Valle-Inclán Antonio Machado Miguel de Unamuno Azorín
The Generación del 27 was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. Their first formal meeting took place in Seville in 1927 to mark the 300th anniversary of the death of the baroque poet Luis de Góngora. Rafael Alberti Luis Cernuda Federico García Lorca Some members of «la Generación del 27» that were at the Residence…
From lefth to right José Bello (Pepín), José Moreno Villa , Luis Buñuel, José María Hinojosa , María Luisa González y Salvador Dalí. Friendship and Art… At the Residencia de Estudiantes Dalí met Federico García Lorca, one of the most famous poets from la Generación del 27 and Luis Buñuel. Them friendship is legendary because they were involved in many avant-garde works and at the same time they had a lot of fun…
"Dear Buñuel: I write quick and long to compensate you for the little we have written to each other this summer, what a summer, God! I've been learning from my aesthetics professor which is Cadaqués, and that's difficult, because Cadaqués speaks so little, and when it speaks, it speaks Greek. Madrid ended up in full dissociation, fabulous debts, alcohol. Neurasthenia emphasised on Federico [García Lorca]. There was a comic reconciliation with Pepin [Bello], who (of course) contributed to the Livertinage with his absolute amorality, ending up in robbing a friend of Federico, a military man from Granada who was going to the front on the following day in the Alcazar. We got him drunk. He was mad about our things and aesthetics we invented and he gave himself up to us in full confidence. Two hours later, Pepín owned the mutual fund, that is, around 100 pts from the soldier, and with our 100 imaginary ones, we went dinner, came back to the [unintelligible], at 3 in the morning. We made him look for more money in his house...at 6 in the taxi we got 100 pts more, we spent our time pulling off the buttons of his suit... All that was, as we theorised later, the Sole Aesthetics in action- The distribution...". Salvador Dalí Letter to Buñuel, September 1926
Dalí studied in the Academia de San Fernando but was expelled twice: 1923: He was accused of having led a student protest against the Academia for not having granted the chair of Painting at the Painting School to the painter Daniel Vázquez Díaz . After that in 1924 Dali was obliged to repeat an academic year. 1926: He was expelled for calling «incompetent» the tribunal of teachers that examined him.
After and before his expellation he painted without rest, getting in touch with all the avant-garde…. We can sumarize his evolution at Madrid in three phases determinated by the evolution of the artistic dialog among Dalí and Lorca.
In this first period the artists meet each other in the Residencia, and start getting involved into the international avantgard enviroment. Along with Buñuel and Pepin Bello, they formed the most outstanding group of artists in the Residencia, very critical with tradicionalist and academic artists whom they called “putrefactos” (the rotten ones). From this term it came up the project "El cuaderno de los putrefactos" between 1925 y 1926, a series of drawing by Dalí and with texts by Lorca.
"Crucifixión", Salvador Dalí, 1925 for Pepín Bello
2. Everything is clear (1925-1928) This moment of maturity of their friendship coincides with the reinforcement of their own will of avant-garde, made up mainly of purism, machinism and objectivity. This period is dominated by the agreements and disagreements from Lorca's "Oda a Salvador Dalí" to the "Sant Sebastià" which Dalí dedicate to Lorca, as well as their model: L´Esprit Nouveau, purism and machinism, Valori Plastici, the metaphysical, the objectivity and “modern life”.
Valori Plastici (Italian for "plastic values ") is the title of an Italian art magazine that was founded by Mario Broglio (1891-1948) in 1918, it turned against Modernism (Cubism, Expressionism and tendencies of abstraction), but especially against Futurism. The magazine, supported by Carlo Carrà (1881-1966), was published up until 1922. The esthetic concept that Valori Plastici propagated asked for a return to a concreteness in a Neo-classic sense, the reflection of the ideal and national traditions. In the beginning, the Valori Plastici was the organ of the Pittura Metafisica , as the style complied with its demands. Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978) The Disquieting Muses. 1918.
Silvana Cenni by Felice Casorati, 1922 La donna e l’armatura (1921) by Felice Casorati
The New Objectivity ( Neue Sachlichkeit ) Was an art movement that arose in Germany in the early 1920s as an outgrowth of, and in opposition to, Expressionism. The movement essentially ended in 1933 with the fall of the Weimar Republic and the rise of the Nazis to power. The term is applied to works of pictorial art, literature, music, architecture, and photography. Made in Germany ( Den macht uns keiner nach ), by George Grosz, drawn in pen 1919, photo-lithograph published 1920 in the portfolio God with us Martha (1925), de Georg Schrimpf
L’esperit Noveau This avant-garde magazine, edited by Amadée Ozenfant and Le Corbusier, carried a wide range of topics and ideas, ranging from arts and literature to architecture and science. Initially subtitled ‘Revue internationale d'esthétique’ and later ‘Revue internationale illustré de l'activité contemporaine…arts, lettres, sciences’ it provided Le Corbusier with a vehicle to explore his ideas on urbanism and architecture and present a radical vision of a Modernism world. Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau, interior
Giorgio de Chirico . The Prodigal Son. 1922. Oil on canvas. Museo d'Arte Contemporanea, Milan, Italy. Giorgio de Chirico . Mystery and Melancholy of a Street. 1914. Oil on canvas. 88 x 72 cm. Private collection.
Neocubist Academy (Composition with Three Figures. The Sailor) 1926
Portrait of Salvador Dalí , 1927. Federico García Lorca .
3. Philosophical Aesthetics (1928-1929) This expression was used by Lorca to talk about Dali’s Surrealis painting. This one-year period means the beginning and definitive separation which starts with the decisive surrealistic “growing apart” of Dalí. The objectivity which the two friends have shared for some years is displaced by a radical subjectivity. The philosophical aesthetics is also present in Lorca's new poems and drawings. Joan Miró is a mutual influence. However, this coincidence won't be enough and Dalí's radicality will make the break-up inevitable. From the point of view of the artistic collaboration, this period stands out for what Dalí calls "the other side" of San Sebastià, which means the beginning of their differences.
1904 Born on 11 May in Figueres (Girona). Son of the notary public Salvador Dalí Cusí and his wife Felipa Domènech Ferrés. 1908 The couple’s only daughter, Anna Maria, was born. His father enrolled Salvador at the State Primary School, under the teacher Esteve Trayter. 1910 Two years later, and due to that first option having failed, his father decided to enrol Salvador at the Hispano-French School of the Immaculate Conception in Figueres, where he learned French, the language that was to become his cultural vehicle. 1916 Salvador spent periods on the outskirts of Figueres, at the Molí de la Torre estate owned by the Pichot family, a family of intellectuals and artists; it was there, through the collection owned by the painter Ramon Pichot, that he discovered Impressionism. After a mediocre primary school period, in the autumn he began his secondary schooling at the Marist Brothers’ school and at Figueres grammar school. He also attended the classes taught by Juan Núñez at the Municipal Drawing School in Figueres. Over the course of this year and the following year Salvador Dalí drew stories for his sister when she was ill. 1917 Salvador’s father organised an exhibition of his son’s charcoal drawings at their family home. 1918 He contributed a vignette to the popular Catalan magazine Patufet . DALÍ Chronology
1919 Took part in a group exhibition at the Societat de Concerts rooms in Figueres’ Municipal Theatre (which was years later to become the Dalí Theatre-Museum). With a group of grammar-school friends he founded Studium magazine, in which he published his first articles: a series of art chronicles in which, in academic and scholarly tones, he wrote about his admired artists Goya, El Greco, Dürer, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Velázquez. Along with another group of Figueres friends he also wrote in the humorous magazine El Sanyó Pancraci , painting an imaginary portrait of the eponymous gentleman. He began a personal diary entitled Les meves impressions i records íntims ( My Personal Impressions and Private Memories), which he continued through the following year. 1920 He began to write a novel, Tardes d’Estiu (Summer Evenings). If he were set on becoming a painter, his father made it a condition that he go to Madrid to study at the Fine Arts School, in order to qualify as a teacher. Dalí accepted to do so. 1921 His mother died in February. The following year, his father married Catalina Domènech Ferrés, the deceased woman’s sister. In May he designed the posters for the Santa Creu Festival of Figueres, and the following year for the festival schedule. He illustrated a special edition of the L’Empordà Federal newspaper, devoted to Enric Morera and Pep Ventura.
1922 He took part in the Students Original Art Works Competition Exhibition of the Catalan Students’s Association, held at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, where his work Market was awarded the University Vice-Chancellor’s prize. In Madrid, he attended the Special Painting, Sculpture and Engraving School (Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando) and lived at the Residencia de Estudiantes, where he befriended a group of young people who were also to become with time leading intellectual and artistic personalities: Luis Buñuel, Federico García Lorca, Pedro Garfias, Eugenio Montes and Pepín Bello, among others. He began to write a notebook which he entitled Ninots. Ensatjos sobre pintura. Catalec dels cuadrus em notes (Puppets. Essays on Painting. Catalogue of Paintings Wiv’ Notes), containing valuable information about Dalí’s progress as an artist. It was probably in this period that he received his first information about Cubist painting through the futuristic catalogue Pittura Scultura Futuriste (Dinamismo Plastico) that Pepito Pichot had brought him from Paris, as well as through foreign journals such as Esprit nouveau and Valori Plastici , passed on to him by his uncle Anselm Domènech, who owned a major bookshop in Barcelona and whom Dalí has asked to take him out a subscription. 1923 In the L’Empordà Federal newspaper he published his poem entitled “The Fair”. He was expelled from the Academia de San Fernando, accused of having led a student protest against the painter Daniel Vázquez Díaz not having been granted the chair of Painting at the Painting School. He returned to Figueres, where he took up his classes again with Juan Núñez, who instructed him in the technique of etching. 1924 Drawings of his were published in the Alfar and España magazines. In autumn he returned to the Academia de San Fernando from which he had been expelled, being now obliged to repeat an academic year. He illustrated Les bruixes de Llers (The Witches of Llers) by his friend Carles Fages de Climent.
1926 He participated in several exhibitions: Modern Catalan Art held in Madrid, the First Autumn Salon held at the Sala Par é s in Barcelona, and Exhibition of Catalan Pictorial Modernism as Against a Selection of Works by Foreign Avant-garde Artists at Galeries Dalmau, also in Barcelona. In the company of his aunt and his sister, he made his first trip to Paris, where he met Picasso and visited the Louvre Museum. He was expelled for good from the Escuela de Bellas Artes de Madrid for declaring the Tribunal that was to examine him incompetent. He returned once more to Figueres and devoted himself intensely to painting. He illustrated L ’ oncle Vicents (Uncle Vicents) by J. Puig Pujades and made two illustrations for Conte de Nadal (Christmas Story) by J. V. Foix, published in the Sitges-based magazine L ’ Amic de les Arts . 1927 He held his second individual exhibition at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona and took part in the Second Autumn Salon at the city ’ s Sala Par é s gallery. The works presented reveal the first clear influences of surrealism, as well as anticipating many features of Dal í’ s future aesthetic principles: severed hands and heads, amputated torsos, veins and arteries, fish, chopped-up figures, rotting donkeys, animals in a state of decomposition, and so forth, i.e. his first steps within a new aesthetic form that sought out new formal principles and was not so much based on the classical and the clearly defined. He did his military service at Sant Ferran castle in Figueres. Mariana Pineda , by Garc í a Lorca, had its first performance at Barcelona ’ s Teatre Goya, with decor and costumes created by Dal í . With publication of the article “ San Sebasti á n ” , devoted to Lorca, there began Dal í’ s regular and extensive collaboration with the vanguardist journal L ’ Amic de les Arts , in a relationship that was to continue until 1929. 1928 He took part in the group exhibition Vanguard Art Manifestation , at Galeries Dalmau. La Gaceta Literaria published his poem “ To L í dia of Cadaqu é s ” and his article “ Reality and Hyperreality ” .He created the logo for Gallo , the superrealist-inspired Granada-based magazine, as well as all the illustrations for the first issue. Along with Llu í s Montany à and Sebasti à Gasch he published the Yellow Manifesto (Catalan Anti-Artistic Manifesto) that amounted to a fierce attack on conventional art. He took part in the Third Autumn Salon at Sala Par é s and in the Twenty-seventh International Exhibition of Paintings in Pittsburgh, United States.