European Art History


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European Art History

  2. 2. ART HISTORY TIMELINE Renaissance 1200 Cubism Impressionism Gothic 1400 1600 Baroque 1700 Rococo 1860 Neoclassism 1750 Post-Impressionism 1898 1905 1908 (Classicism) (Classicism) Fauvism & Expressionism 1910 1913 1916 1924 1950 1958 1960 1978 Abstract Art Constructivism Dadaism Surrealism Optical Art Pop Art Conceptual Art Minimalism Digital Art
  3. 3. RENAISSANCE •This movement began in Italy in the 14th century. •Began in northern Italy and then spread through Europe. •RENAISSANCE literally means rebirth in French. •This art reflected back to the classical time of Rome and Greece. •Oil painting on canvas started. •Paintings took on three dimensions by the use of shadow and light. •Artists tried to show differences in proportions (meaning size and location of one thing compared to another in the painting) of their subject matter.
  4. 4. Renaissance Artists • Leonardo Da Vinci (Painter & Sculptor) • Michelangelo (Painter & Sculptor) • Raphael (Painter) • Rembrandt (Painter) • Sandro Botticelli (Painter) • Donatello (Sculptor)
  7. 7. RENAISSANCE Interesting fact Women seen in renaissance paintings are always portrayed as prostitutes or as a virtuous woman. Italian women fashion was to be Plump. FAT is IN ! They shaved their eyebrows
  8. 8. RENAISSANCE Home PROFILE Leonardo Da Vinci Real name =Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci means Leonardo the son of Piero da vinci D.O.B = April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519 Italy scientist, mathematician, inventor, pa inter, sculptor, architect, musician and writer . He is the FATHER of Renaissance artists. Left-handed and wrote in mirror images . Rumoured to have relationships with his male pupils. – Homosexual Died of old age
  9. 9. RENAISSANCE Leonardo Da Vinci Mona Lisa or ―La Gioconda‖, 1517 Oil on wood, 77 x 53 cm Spent 4 years to paint Mona Lisa It was a famous painting during the Renaissance period but it became even more famous in 1911. WHY? It was stolen by an Italian. It resurfaced two years later in Florence. In 1956, an acid attempt damaged the lower half of the painting.
  10. 10. RENAISSANCE Leonardo Da Vinci Mona Lisa or ―La Gioconda” Oil on wood, 77 x 53 cm (30 x 20 7/8 in) Behind the painting •The left finger was not completely finished •The elbow was repaired from damage due to a rock thrown at the painting in 1956. •Beneath this painting are 3 different versions of the painting.
  11. 11. RENAISSANCE Leonardo Da Vinci He painted it on the back wall of the dining hall at the Dominican convent of Sta Maria delle Grazie in Italy. Behind the painting •The Knife one of the disciple is holding. •Is there a girl among the 12 supposedly male disciples? The last Supper, 1495-1498
  12. 12. RENAISSANCE The last Supper, 1495-1498
  13. 13. RENAISSANCE Sandro Botticelli Real name was Alessandro Mariano di Vanni Filipepi 1445 – May 17, 1510 Italy Known for his religious pictures but his most famous works were paintings of mythological creatures and gods from ancient Greek and Roman stories. Not married. Afraid of it Rumoured to be homosexual. 2 most famous paintings are Primavera and The birth of venus.
  14. 14. RENAISSANCE Sandro Botticelli Primavera, 1482
  15. 15. RENAISSANCE Sandro Botticelli The Birth of Venus, 1485 •Venus is said to be a rich married woman whom Botticelli liked
  16. 16. RENAISSANCE Sandro Botticelli The Birth of Venus, 1485
  17. 17. RENAISSANCE Michelangelo Full name: Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni D.O.B: 6 Mar 1475 – 18 Feb 1564, Italy Painter, sculptor, engineer, architect, poet. Rival: Da Vinci He was not married. He liked the beauty of man. Most of his Art works portrayed men.
  18. 18. RENAISSANCE Michelangelo Pietà, 1499 •Sitting in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City •Art work depicts the body of Jesus on the lap of his mother Mary after the Crucifix
  19. 19. RENAISSANCE Michelangelo David - about 5.17m tall Gigantic marble, 1501 - 1504 •This statue represent David before the battle with Goliath. •It was built to commemorate the independence of the Florentine Republic •Standing in the Piazza della Signoria, the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchi City, Italy. •Sculpture was moved in 1873 to the Accademia Gallery in Florence. •Too many duplicates because it is famous.
  20. 20. RENAISSANCE Michelangelo Replica of DAVID •symbol of both strength and youthful human beauty
  21. 21. RENAISSANCE Michelangelo The Last Judgment, 1531-1545 1370 × 1200 cm Took 6 years to complete the Altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.
  22. 22. RENAISSANCE Michelangelo Creation of Adam, 1511 480 × 230 cm •Painted on the ceiling of the famous Sistine Chapel. •Illustrates the Biblical story which God the Father breathes life into Adam.
  23. 23. RENAISSANCE Michelangelo
  24. 24. Interior of the Sistine Chapel at Vatican City, Rome
  25. 25. IMPRESSIONISM KEY DATES: 1867-1886 •A French 19th century art movement which marked a momentous break from tradition in European painting. •The Impressionists incorporated new scientific research into the physics of colour to achieve a more exact representation of colour and tone. •Impressionist art is a style in which the artist captures the image of an object as someone would see it if they just caught a glimpse of it. •They paint the pictures with a lot of color and most of their pictures are outdoor scenes. Their pictures are very bright and vibrant.
  27. 27. IMPRESSIONISTS • Claude Monet • Camille Pissarro • Edgar Degas • Edouard Manet • Pierre Renoir
  28. 28. IMPRESSIONISM Claude Monet Full name: Claude Oscar Monet D.O.B: 1840-1926, Paris ran into financial difficulties and attempted suicide in 1868 Well-known for landscape painting especially nature. Suffered from Cataracts Died of lung cancer
  29. 29. IMPRESSIONISM Claude Monet Bridge over a Pool of Water Lilies 1899 a series of approximately 250 oil paintings of water lilies. In 2007, one of Monet's water lily paintings sold for £18.5 million. In 2008, another of Monet’s water lily painting sold for £ 41 million His good friends were Pissarro, Cézanne, Renoir, Sisley, and Bazille
  30. 30. IMPRESSIONISM Claude Monet Branch of the Seine near Giverny, 1897Pappeln on the Epte, 1900
  31. 31. IMPRESSIONISM Water-Lilies, 1908 Water Lilies, 1920-1926
  32. 32. NYMPHÉAS AVEC REFLETS DE HAUTES HERBES, 1914-17 oil on canvas 130 by 200cm. $14,137M LE GIVRE À GIVERNY,1885 oil on canvas 54 by 71cm. $13,785M
  33. 33. IMPRESSIONISM Edgar Degas Full name: Hilaire-Germain- Edgar De Gas D.O.B: 1834 –1917, Paris One of the main founder of Impressionism. Well-known for portrait, dancers and female nudes Paintings. Suffered eye problem Friends called him eccentric.
  34. 34. IMPRESSIONISM Edgar Degas La famille Bellelli Portrait de famille 1858 -1867 • Studied Art by doing copying Painting at Louve Museum • Extremely sensitive to bright light and experienced a loss of vision in his right eye • lost a significant part of his central vision by aged 40 • Had to stopped doing Art by aged 57
  35. 35. IMPRESSIONISM Edgar Degas Dancing Examination. 1874 The Absinthe Drinker 1875-1876
  36. 36. IMPRESSIONISM Pierre Auguste Renoir Full name: Pierre Auguste Renoir D.O.B: 1841 – 1919, France often focusing on people in intimate and candid compositions Painting nude was one of his primary subjects
  37. 37. IMPRESSIONISM Pierre Auguste Renoir •Known for his vibrant light and saturated color, most often focusing on people in intimate and candid compositions •Discovered that the color of shadows is not brown or black, but the reflected color of the objects surrounding them. •Best friend is Claude Monet. 1876 Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette Most famous painting
  38. 38. Pierre Auguste Renoir Le déjeuner des canotiers (The Boating party) Painted in 1881 Mdm. Charpentier and her children, 1878
  39. 39. Artist: Paul Cézanne Date Painted: 1892/93 Art Style: Oil on Canvas Sold To: Royal Family of Qatar Price (Date of Sale): $259-$320M (April 2011) Adjusted Price Today: ~ $268.1 Million
  40. 40. POST-IMPRESSIONISM Post- Impressionism extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: • Use vivid colours • Thick application of paint • Distinctive brush strokes •Use real-life subject matter, but were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms to distort form for expressive effect • Use unnatural or arbitrary colour (not realistic colours of the object)
  41. 41. POST-IMPRESSIONISTS • Vincent Van Gogh • Paul Gauguin • Paul Cézanne • George Seurat • Henri Rousseau • Paul Signac
  42. 42. POST-IMPRESSIONISM Vincent Van Gogh Full name: Vincent Willhem Van Gogh D.O.B: 1853 – 1890, Netherlands Considered as Dutch Post- Impressionist and the pioneer of Expressionist. Known to be eccentric. Did not communicate with his family other than his younger brother, Theo. He wrote more than 600 letters to him. produced more than 2,000 artworks, consisting of around 900 paintings and 1,100 drawings and sketches
  43. 43. Vincent Van Gogh •Three brothers, and three sisters •A medicine which blurred his colour vision. – Yellow & Gold •This is the only painting which Van Gogh sold throughout his Life when he was still alive as an artist. "The Red Vineyard" Painted in1888 POST-IMPRESSIONISM
  44. 44. Vincent Van Gogh •Eccentric behaviour started After he got rejected by his long Distant cousin. •Found a gf who is a prostitute. •Wore ragged, unwashed clothing, Painted peasants. "The Potato Eaters― Painted in 1885 POST-IMPRESSIONISM
  45. 45. Vincent Van Gogh Argued with his best friend, Gauguin, cut off his ear and gave it to a prostitute friend. Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear Painted in 1889 POST-IMPRESSIONISM
  46. 46. Vincent Van Gogh He painted this during his Depression period, outside The mental hospital which He stayed before. Starry starry night 1889 POST-IMPRESSIONISM
  47. 47. Vincent Van Gogh One of his last paintings which he completed in late July 1890. After a few days later, Van Gogh went for a walk and shot himself in the chest. "Wheat Field With Crows― 1890 POST-IMPRESSIONISM
  48. 48. $90M $82.5M $82.9M
  49. 49. POST-IMPRESSIONISM Paul Gauguin Full name: Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin D.O.B: 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903, Paris Married but wad driven out of the house Depression and attempted suicide Friend with Vincent Van Gogh
  50. 50. POST-IMPRESSIONISM Paul Gauguin Always arguing with Van Gogh Was the cause of Van Gogh cutting his ear Speak ill of the government and was sentenced to prison. Suffered from Syphilis Died of overdose of Morphine & heart Attack before serving in prison Vincent van Gogh Painting Sun Flowers
  51. 51. POST-IMPRESSIONISM Still Life With Teapot And Fruit The Guitar Player
  52. 52. FAUVISM • Began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910 • Fauves mean ―Wild Beasts‖ in French. • Experimenting a new way of using pure, vivid colours • Go against the traditional Art technique like Impressionism. • Blocks and dashes of colours not seen in nature, juxtaposed with other unnatural colours in a frenzy of emotion • Started with Henri Matisse and André Derain
  54. 54. FAUVISM ARTISTS • Henri Matisse • André Derain • Maurice de Vlaminck • Albert Marque
  55. 55. FAUVISM Henri Matisse • Full name: Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse • D.O.B: 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954, France • Believed absolutely in colour as an emotional force • Married • Later artworks were controversial (public disagreed) • Died of Cancer
  56. 56. FAUVISM Femme au chapeau (Woman with a Hat), 1905 • First painting to be exhibited at Salon d'Automne (Autumn Salon) • Marked a stylistic change from the regulated brushstrokes to a more expressive individual style • Non-naturalistic colours and loose brushwork, which contributed to a sketchy or "unfinished" quality
  57. 57. FAUVISM Portrait of Madame Matisse - Green Line, 1905 Harmony in Red
  58. 58. FAUVISM • Changed to collage because of his illness
  59. 59. FAUVISM André Derain • Full name: André Derain • D.O.B: 10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954, France • Suffered from eye illness • Was knocked down by a vehicle
  60. 60. FAUVISM Charing Cross Bridge, 1906
  61. 61. FAUVISM The Turning Road, L'Estaque, 1906 • Juxtaposing extreme colours such as red and green, blue and orange
  62. 62. EXPRESSIONISM • Use of intense colour, short brushstrokes, distortion, exaggeration. • Artistic style in the use of distortion and exaggeration for emotional effect. • Expressionism is to express the artist's own representation of his or her world
  63. 63. EXPRESSIONISTS • Edvard Munch • Ernst Ludwig Kirchner • Wassily Kandinsky • Franz Marc • Francis Bacon • Affandi
  64. 64. Edvard Munch Full name: Edvard Munch D.O.B: 1863 – 1944, Norway Edvard’s mother died of tuberculosis in 1868 His favourite sis died of tuberculosis in 1877. Another sis suffered from mental illness. Brother died a few months after his wedding. His father died in 1889. EXPRESSIONISM
  65. 65. Edvard Munch The Scream, 1893 •Tragic family history. •(Everyone in the family died) •The first Western artist to have his pictures exhibited at the National Gallery in Beijing. •The Scream painting was stolen in 1994 but was restored after a few years. EXPRESSIONISM
  66. 66. Edvard Munch Death in the Sickroom. 1895 Collection of 1,100 paintings, 4,500 drawings and 18000 prints, as well as woodcuts, etchings, lithograp hs, lithographic stones, woodcut blocks, copperplates and photographs EXPRESSIONISM
  67. 67. $121.3M
  68. 68. Francis Bacon Full name: Francis Bacon D.O.B: 28 October 1909 – 28 April 1992, Ireland Started to cross dress at 15 Worked to support himself (cooking, selling women’s clothes) Was sexually attracted to his father Attracted to old and young men Influenced by Pablo Picasso Human suffering, solitude and isolation, anxiety, horror and tragedy, sex, violence and death Died of heart failure EXPRESSIONISM
  69. 69. Crucifixion, 1944 EXPRESSIONISM
  70. 70. Self-portrait EXPRESSIONISM
  71. 71. Triptych, 1973 EXPRESSIONISM
  73. 73. Franz Marc EXPRESSIONISM Full name: Franz Marc D.O.B: Feb 8,1880 – Mar 4,1916, Germany Bright primary colours Influenced by Cubism Blue was used to portray masculinity and spirituality Yellow represented feminine joy Red represented the sound of violence. Died at 36
  74. 74. Red Deer I Sold for $3.3m USD in 1998 EXPRESSIONISM The Waterfall Sold for $5.06m USD in 1999
  75. 75. EXPRESSIONISM Red Horse Blue Horse I
  76. 76. CUBISM KEY DATES: 1908-1914 •The Cubism movement began in Paris around 1907. •Led by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. •Cubists broke from centuries of tradition in their painting. •In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form.
  77. 77. CUBISM • Pablo Picasso • Georges Braque • Malevich • Leger
  78. 78. CUBISM Pablo Picasso Full name: Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso D.O.B: 1881 - 1973, Spain One of the main founder of Cubism His artworks were divided into Blue Period (1901–1904) Rose Period (1905–1907) African-influenced Period (1908–1909) Analytic Cubism (1909–1912) Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919)
  79. 79. CUBISM Pablo Picasso Girl with a mandolin 1910 Paulo (4 February 1921 – 5 June 1975) (Born Paul Joseph Picasso) — with Olga Khokhlova Maia (5 September 1935 – ) (Born Maria de la Concepcion Picasso) — with Marie-Thérèse Walter Claude (15 May 1947 –) (Born Claude Pierre Pablo Picasso) — with Françoise Gilot Paloma (19 April 1949 – ) (Born Anne Paloma Picasso) — with Françoise Gilot
  80. 80. CUBISM Pablo Picasso Guitar Player 1910 Produced about 50,000, comprising 1,885 paintings; 1,228 sculptures; 2,880 ceramics, roughly 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints
  81. 81. $155M $95.2M
  82. 82. DADAISM • Considered Anti-Art • Rumoured to be formed because of World War I • Rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition Early 1910s
  83. 83. DADAISM & SURREALISM ARTISTS • Marcel Duchamp • Max Ernst • de Chirico • Frida Kahlo • Salvador Dalí • Rene Magritte
  84. 84. DADISM Marchel Duchamp Full name: Marcel Duchamp D.O.B: 28 Jul 1887 – 2 Oct 1968, France Decided to do Anti-Art works after WORLD WAR Died in his sleep
  85. 85. DADAISM Marcel Duchamp Video
  86. 86. DADAISM Marcel Duchamp
  87. 87. SURREALISM •The works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and absurd. •Surrealism is a style in which fantastic visual imagery from the subconscious mind is used with no intention of making the artwork logically comprehensible. •Involves Psychology Early 1920s
  88. 88. SURREALISM Salvador Dali Full name: Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech Took his brother’s name because he died before Dali was born D.O.B: May 11 1904 – January 23 1989, Spain Eccentric personality Famous feature – Starched moustache Obsessed with Hitler and dreamed Hitler was a woman Known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work.
  89. 89. SURREALISM Salvador Dali Painter, Photographer, Sculptor, and does video too. Suffered from Parkinson disease. Right hand trembles rapidly due to his senile wife who fed him overdose of medicine Attempted suicide after his wife died Forced to sign blank canvas Died of Heart failure
  90. 90. SURREALISM Salvador Dali Best known painting – on the left After entertaining guests in the evening, Dalí sat at the table looking upon the soft, half melted Camembert cheese. Suddenly the idea of melting watches came to him and he immediately got to work. The Persistence of Memory, 1931
  91. 91. SURREALISM II VOLTO DI MAE WEST 1934-1935 The Hallucinogenic Toreador 1968
  92. 92. SURREALISM Salvador Dali Still Life Moving Fast 1956 Did you know? This logo was created by Dali.
  93. 93. SURREALISM René François Magritte Full name: René François Ghislain Magritte D.O.B: 21 Nov 1898 – 15 Aug 1967, Belgium Made fake painting of Picasso’s works and sell them The titles of his works are random, crazy and weird. Sometimes his friends title the paintings he created Successful surrealist but was never Fully accepted in Paris Mother drowned herself and the image of her face covered by the wet nightdress haunted him
  94. 94. SURREALISM René François Magritte Well known for a number of witty and amusing images. Magritte's simplicity is misleading. Chose ordinary things to construct his works - trees, chairs, tables, doors, windows, shoes, shelves, landscapes, people…etc Work frequently contains a juxtaposition of objects or an unusual context giving new meanings to familiar things. Died of cancer. Time Transfixed, 1938
  95. 95. SURREALISM René François Magritte Golconde , 1953 The Son of Man, 1964
  96. 96. SURREALISM The Lovers, 1928 La-Thérapeute, 1941,
  97. 97. ABSTRACT ART KEY DATES: 1910 Abstract art generally means art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way.
  98. 98. ABSTRACT ART • Jackson Pollock • Mark Rothko • Piet Mondrian • Willem de Kooning
  99. 99. ABSTRACT ART Jackson Pollock Full name: Paul Jackson Pollock D.O.B: 28 Jan, 1912 – 11 Aug 1956, America Founder of Abstract expressionist. Died in a drinking car crash accident
  100. 100. ABSTRACT ART Jackson Pollock •Started the "drip" technique by dripping paint on the canvas which was laid on the floor. •Used hardened brushes, sticks and syringes to paint. •He would poke a hole in the bottom of a tin can of paint to drip. Pollock's technique of pouring and dripping paint is thought to be one of the origins of the term ―Action painting‖.
  101. 101. ABSTRACT ART Number 1, l948Number 4, l950 $58.3m
  102. 102. ABSTRACT ART Mark Rothko Full name: Marcus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz D.O.B: 25 Sep 1903 –25 Feb 1970, Russia Moved to USA when he was young. Believed that his painting Speaks for itself.
  103. 103. ABSTRACT ART Mark Rothko White over Red 1957 •Rothko was suffered from depression. •He had a prickly temperament, drank heavily and took hypnotic pills. •Had 2 failed marriages •Committed suicide
  104. 104. ABSTRACT ART Mark Rothko Orange and Yellow, 1956 Yellow, Red, Red, 1954
  105. 105. $24M $161M
  106. 106. ABSTRACT ART Piet Mondrian Full name: Pieter Cornelis "Piet" Mondriaa D.O.B: 7 Mar, 1872 – 1 Feb, 1944 Netherlands Started as a Post-impressionist Paintings were mainly influenced by Abstract and Neoplasticism. Neoplasticism is the belief of having horizontal and vertical lines of Primary colours. Died of pneumonia
  107. 107. ABSTRACT ART Piet Mondrian Composition of red, yellow and blue 1930 •This painting was duplicated and it can be found in Singapore. •A 17-story condominium was launched in Singapore in April 2007 with the name "Parc Mondrian‖
  108. 108. ABSTRACT ART Piet Mondrian ―Composition with red, yellow blue and black― 1921 Broadway Boogie Woogie 1942 -1943
  109. 109. POP ART • Popular Art movement used common everyday objects to portray elements of popular culture, primarily images in advertising and television in the western countries. • Originated in England in the 1950s and traveled overseas to the United States during the 1960s. • Reflecting the affluence in post-war society. • Most prominent in American art. In celebrating everyday objects such as soup cans, washing powder, comic strips and soda pop bottles, the movement turned the commonplace into icons. 1958 - 1975
  110. 110. POP ART • Andy Warhol • Roy Lichtenstein • Richard Hamilton • Jasper Johns • Keith Harrings
  111. 111. POP ART Andy Warhol Full name: Andrew Warhola D.O.B: 6 Aug, 1928 – 22 Feb 1987, America Discovered Blotted-line Technique. Tape two pieces of blank paper together and then draw in ink on one page. Before the ink dried, he would press the two pieces of paper together. The result was a picture with irregular lines that he would color in with watercolor. Famous for retrospective design.
  112. 112. POP ART Andy Warhol Campbell’s Soup, 1968 Made paintings of famous American products like Campbell Soup, Coca-Cola, Marilyn Monroe…etc Campbell Soup is his most famous painting.
  113. 113. This painting was sold for $1000USD.
  114. 114. POP ART Turquoise Marilyn 1962
  115. 115. POP ART Self-portrait
  116. 116. POP ART Mickey Mouse
  117. 117. POP ART Guess how much does this cost? $100 million USD
  118. 118. POP ART Roy Lichtenstein Full name: Roy Fox Lichtenstein D.O.B: 27 Oct, 1923 –29 Sept, 1997, America Works showed about pop art through Parody Heavily influenced by both popular advertising and the comic book style.
  119. 119. POP ART Whaam! 1963
  120. 120. POP ART Girl with hair ribbon 1965 Drowning Girl 1963
  121. 121. $16.2M (USD)2005 $42.6M (USD)2010 $56.1M (USD)2013
  122. 122. Surrealism Salvador Dali René François Magritte Renaissance Leonardo Da Vinci Sandro Botticelli Michelangelo Cubism Georges Braque Pablo Picasso Paul Cezanne Paul Klee Expressionism Edvard Munch Franz Marc Francis Bacon Marc Chagall Impressionism Claude Monet Edgar Degas Pierre Auguste Renoir Camille Pissarro Pop Art Andy Warhol Roy Lichtenstein Richard Hamilton Jasper Johns Keith Harrings Abstract Art Jackson Pollock Mark Rothko Piet Mondrian Post- Impressionism Vincent Van Gogh Paul Gauguin Paul Cézanne George Seurat Henri Rousseau Paul Signac Fauvism Henri Matisse Andre Derain
  123. 123. American Gothic, 1930 – Grant Wood (Pop Art) American Gothic
  124. 124. A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, 1884 - Georges Seurat (Post-Impressionism)