20th Century Art


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20th Century Art

  1. 1. 20 th Century Art
  2. 2. Why is it so… weird? <ul><li>Think of how much and how quickly the world has changed in the last 110 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern art is a reflection of that turbulence. </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras make realistic art obsolete. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production makes art marketable </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Like the mannerists who followed Michelangelo and co., the artists of the 20 th century valued originality and innovation over just beauty. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you can’t please the public, shock it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realistic doesn’t equal “good” art. Instead, go back to the 4 questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I see? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I know about what I see? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the artist trying to do/say? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How successful was he/she? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Moderns 1900-1914 <ul><li>Matisse </li></ul><ul><li>Not realistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple lines & figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bright colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not concerned about distance /three-dimensionality </li></ul></ul>La Danse , 1910
  5. 5. Fauves “Wild Beasts” <ul><li>French artists Inspired by African and Oceanic art </li></ul><ul><li>= Modern art that looks primitive </li></ul>Derain, Landscape at Cassis, 1907
  6. 6. Pablo Picasso 1881-1973 <ul><li>The master of many styles and mediums </li></ul><ul><li>Early paintings are very realistic </li></ul><ul><li>The most famous and the greatest artist of the 20 th century </li></ul>Science and Charity , 1897
  7. 7. <ul><li>Painted the outcasts of society; lived in total poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Went through periods of color dominance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Blue Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rose Period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With his friend, Georges Braque, developed Cubism </li></ul>Life , 1903
  8. 8. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon 1907
  9. 9. Cubism <ul><li>Shatter a glass sculpture, pick up the pieces, glue them on a canvas = Cubism! </li></ul><ul><li>Shows several different perspectives of the same subject at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Like a round world sliced up to show all the parts. </li></ul><ul><li>(Remember, this is the same time that Einstein’s coming up with the theory of relativity/the 4 th dimension!) </li></ul><ul><li>Background and foreground overlap, the subject dissolves into pattern. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Carafe, Jug, and Fruit Bowl 1909
  11. 11. L’Accordeoniste , 1911
  12. 13. Guernica 1937 <ul><li>On April 27, 1937, Franco (Spain’s dictator) gave Hitler permission to test their new air bombs on a village in northern Spain, Guernica. </li></ul>When Picasso read accounts of it in the newspapers, he immediately began the plans for the 286 square-foot mural, Guernica.
  13. 14. Guernica
  14. 15. Abstract Art <ul><li>Simplifies things – a man = a stick figure, a squiggle = a wave, red = anger </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about symbolism, capturing the essence of reality in a few lines and colors </li></ul><ul><li>Think “visual music” (this is when jazz was developed in America) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) <ul><li>Patterns that are just beautiful, even if they don’t “mean” anything </li></ul><ul><li>Composition VII , 1913 </li></ul>
  16. 17. Piet Mondrain Composition with Yellow, Blue and Red, 1937-1942 Painting at its most basic elements: black lines + white canvas + primary colors
  17. 18. Henry Moore 1898-1986 “ Carved the human body with the epic scale and restless poses of Michelangelo but with the crude rocks and simple lines of the Primitives.”
  18. 19. Expressionism <ul><li>WWI left 10 million dead and killed the optimism and faith in mankind that lead Europe since the Renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>Postwar Europe = Cynicism and decadence </li></ul><ul><li>Artists “expressed” their disgust by showing a distorted reality that emphasized the ugly. </li></ul><ul><li>- Lurid colors and simplified figures of the Fauves, but with a haunted, harsh tone. </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Scream , Edvard Munch, 1893 (during the Post-Impressionist period, but still a model of Expressionism)
  20. 21. Compare the two versions of terror, less than 75 years apart.
  21. 22. Dada <ul><li>Artistic grief became twisted humor </li></ul><ul><li>+ resentment of the bourgeoisie/pompous intellectuals </li></ul><ul><li>= Art that is outrageous, offensive, and meant to give traditional culture the finger. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Fountain , Marcel Duchamp, 1917
  23. 25. Surrealism <ul><li>“ Beyond realism” – a mixed bag of reality </li></ul><ul><li>A juxtaposition of images that you have to try to connect. </li></ul><ul><li>If it doesn’t connect, then the artist has still forced you to think in new ways = success! </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud also came along, introducing the idea of the subconscious and the importance of dreams. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Salvador Dali (1904-1989) <ul><li>Most famous surrealist </li></ul><ul><li>Painted, with amazing realism, “random” objects to create an emotional punch. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Dali, Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening , 1944
  26. 28. Dali, Madonna of Port Lligat , 1940
  27. 29. The Persistence of Memory , 1931
  28. 30. Rene Magritte 1898-1967 The Son of Man , 1964
  29. 31. The Treachery of Images , 1929
  30. 33. Guernica = A blend of Surrealism and Cubism
  31. 34. And then… <ul><li>World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Art = Propaganda </li></ul>
  32. 35. Abstract Expressionism <ul><li>Expressing emotions using only color and form </li></ul><ul><li>The act of creation becomes more important than the final product </li></ul>
  33. 36. Jackson Pollock, The She Wolf , 1943
  34. 37. Pollock, Silver over Black, White, Yellow, and Red , 1948
  35. 38. Pop Art <ul><li>The consumer = king! </li></ul><ul><li>Art created from “pop”-ular objects, mocking pop culture by embracing it. </li></ul>
  36. 39. Andy Warhol (1928-1987) Campbell’s Soup Cans , 1962 Marilyn Monroe , 1962
  37. 40. Ray Lichtenstein (1923-1997) Drowning Girl , 1963
  38. 41. Post-Modernism 1970-present <ul><li>Art = big business </li></ul><ul><li>Every object can be artistic, it just depends on context </li></ul><ul><li>Installations : An artist takes over an entire room </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblages : Recycle trash into larger sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Objects : Art from nature’s objects </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction : Viewer participation </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Art : The idea/concept is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Deconstruction: Changing the familiar/Put a familiar object in a new setting </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Art : Mixed-media live performance </li></ul>
  39. 42. Installation Art Rachel Whiteread, Embankment , 2005
  40. 43. Assemblages Raoul Hausmann, Mechanical Head , 1920
  41. 44. Natural Art Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty (The Great Salt Lake), 1970
  42. 45. Interactive Art
  43. 46. Conceptual Art Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs , 1965
  44. 47. Christo and Jean-Claude, The Gates , 2005 Christo and Jean-Claude, The Umbrellas , 1991 Deconstruction
  45. 48. Performance Art Video Clip: “ Over the Moon”, from the play Rent , Jonathan Larsen