Scatalogical Object Functioning Symbolically (The Surrealist Shoe). 1931 (1973 reconstruction of now lost original, in an edition of eight plus four artist's proofed, each slightly different, by Max Clerac_Serou of the Galerie du Dragon under the supervision of Salvador Dali). Assemblage with lady's shoe, white marble, photographs, modeling clay, milk glass contains wax, brush without bristles, sugar cubes, spoons, matchbox, wooden scraper, hair and a gibbet. 48 x 28 - 14 cm. Private collection.
1929 He took part in the Exhibition of Paintings and Sculptures by Spaniards Resident in Paris , held at the Botanical Gardens in Madrid. The last issue of L ’ Amic de les Arts was published, its conception and most of the articles being the work of Salvador Dal í , who made therein his profession of faith in surrealism. He travelled again to Paris and, through Joan Mir ó , came into contact with the group of surrealists headed by Andr é Breton. It was during this stay in the French capital that Barcelona ’ s La Publicitat newspaper published under the title “ Documentary – Paris – 1929 ” seven articles setting out Dal í’ s impressions of all that was going on there. The film Un chien andalou was shown at Paris ’ Studio des Ursulines, being the fruit of his collaboration with Luis Bu ñ uel. He spent the summer in Cadaqu é s, where he received a visit from the gallery-owner Camille Goemans and a friend of his, as well as Ren é Magritte and his wife, Luis Bu ñ uel, Paul Eluard and Gala, and the couple ’ s daughter C é cile. From that time on, Gala was never to leave his side. He took part in the group exhibition Abstrakte und surrealistische Malerei und Plastik at the Kunsthaus in Zurich. His first individual exhibition was held at Galerie Goemans in Paris. This was a year of family break-up. 1930 He gave a talk under the title “ The Moral Stance of Surrealism ” at the Ateneu Barcelon è s in Barcelona, later published as an article in the Vilafranca del Pened è s H è lix magazine. He took part in an exhibition of collages organised at Galerie Goemans in Paris. He illustrated Artine by Ren é Char and made the frontispiece for the Second Superrealist Manifesto by Andr é Breton. L ’ âge d ’ or (The Age of Gold), the second film he made in collaboration with Bu ñ uel, had its first performance at Studio 28 in Paris. É ditions Surr é alistes published his book La femme visible (The Visible Woman), a compilation of articles that had previously appeared in various magazines, such as “ The Putrified Donkey ” , in which he laid the foundations for his paranoiac-critical method. The Paris-based magazine Le Surr é alisme au Service de la R é volution published “ Spanish and Catalan Intellectuals, Exhibitions, Arrest of an Exhibitionist in the Metro ” by Salvador Dal í . By the beginning of the ‘ thirties Dal í had found his own style, his private language and the form of expression that was to remain with him thereafter and, while changing and evolving, would be the one we are all familiar with and that so well defines him — a mixture of vanguard and tradition. Behind him lay his first Impressionist canvases and his works influenced, among other movements, by Cubism, purism and futurism. Dal í had become fully integrated into surrealism, and there began his consecration as a painter. Dalí Chronology
1931 Staged his first individual exhibition at Galerie Pierre Colle in Paris, where he exhibited his work The Persistence of Memory . He also took part in the first surrealist exhibition in the United States, held at the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford. His book L ’ amour et la m é moire (Love and Memory) and his articles “ Surrealist Objects ” , “ Communication: Paranoiac Face ” and “ Reveries ” appeared in the magazine Le Surr é alisme au Service de la Revolution . 1932 He took part in the exhibition Surrealism: Paintings, Drawings and Photographs , organised by the Julien Levy Gallery in New York. His second individual exhibition was held at Galerie Pierre Colle in Paris. His book Babaouo , in which he outlined his conception of cinema, was published by É ditions des Cahiers Libres. The journal This Quarter published an issue devoted to surrealism, which in addition to other Dal í poems that had appeared in previous publications contained various articles of his such as “ Binding Cradled - Cradled Bound ” and “ The Object as Revealed in Surrealist Experiment ” . He made the frontispiece for Le revolver à cheveux blancs by Andr é Breton. At the end of this year, Dal í announced to the Viscount of Noailles the creation of the Zodiaque Group, a group of friends who joined together to help Salvador Dal í financially by commissioning him to create works that they then purchased on a regular basis. 1933 He illustrated the Andr é Breton poem that was published in the book Violette Nozi è res . The book El ritme de la revoluci ó (The Rhythm of Revolution) by Jaume Miravitlles was published, illustrated with earlier drawings by Dal í . The first issue of the Paris-based magazine Minotaure published the prologue to the book that remained unpublished until 1963 Interpr é tation parano ï aque-critique de l'image obs é dante "L'Ang é lus" de Millet (Paranoiac-critical Interpretation of the Obsessive Image The Angelus by Millet). He took part in a collective surrealist exhibition at Galerie Pierre Colle, where he also presented his third individual exhibition. First individual exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York. Articles of his were published in various specialised journals: “ Psycho-Atmospheric-Anamorphic Objects ” , “ Notes and Communiqu é s:The False Meteorites at the Natural History Museum are ‘ also ’ Paranoiac Phenomena ” , “ The Surrealist Actuality of Conical Anamorphs ” and “ Raymond Roussel. New Impressions of Africa ” in issues 5 and 6 of Le Surr é alisme au Service de la R é volution and “ On the Terrifying and Edible Beauty of Modern ’ Style Architecture ” and “ The Phenomenon of Ecstasy ” in issue 3-4 of the journal Minotaure .
1934 Enters into civil matrimony with Gala (n é e Elena Ivanovna Diakonova), with Yves Tanguy and Andr é Gaston as witnesses. He exhibited at the Exposition du Cinquantenaire in the Salon des Ind é pendants of the Grand Palais in Paris, without taking account of the opinion of the rest of the surrealists, who had decided not to participate in it, which nearly led to Dal í being expelled from the group led by Breton. He made the frontispiece for Onan by Georges Hugnet, and illustrated De derri è re les fagots by Benjamin Peret. Documents 34 published “ Latest Fashions in Intellectual Excitation for the 1934 Summer Season ” and in Minotaure “ The New Colours of Spectral Sex-Appeal ” and “ Aerodynamic Appearances of ‘ Beings-Objects ’” . The Quatre Chemins bookshop in Paris exhibited the 42 etchings and 30 drawings he made to illustrate Les Chants de Maldoror by Isidore Ducasse, Count of Lautr é amont. He staged his first individual exhibition at the Zwemmer Gallery in London. Along with Gala he boarded vessel Champlain to make his first journey to the United States. He published a pamphlet entitled New York salutes me to mark the occasion. Two individual Dal í exhibitions were held, one at the Julien Levy Gallery and another at the Avery Memorial of the Wadsworth Atheneum, in Hartford (Connecticut). 1935 He made a series of drawings and wrote articles for American Weekly , in which he described various concepts of modern, urban American life. The couple returned to Europe on board the Normandie . Salvador Dal í went to Figueres in March, where a family reconciliation took place. Along with Hans Arp, Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, Alberto Giacometti, Valentine Hugo, Ó scar Dom í nguez, Man Ray, Marcel Jean and Yves Tanguy, he illustrated the programme for Cycle syst é matique de conf é rences sur les plus r é centes positions du surr é alisme . He took part in the surrealism exhibition at the Salle d'Exposition de la Commune de La Louvi è re (Belgium) and in the 1935 International Exhibition of Paintings at the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh. His article “ Non-Euclidian Psychology of a Photograph ” was published in the magazine Minotaure. He illustrated Nuits partag é es by Paul Eluard, and his article “ Picasso Slippers ” , in which he applied his paranoiac-critical method to literature, appeared in Cahiers d'art . É ditions Surr é alistes published his book La conquête de l'irrationnel (The Conquest of the Irrational).
1936 In May he took part in the Exposition Surr é aliste d ’ Objets at the Galerie Charles Ratton in Paris, where he exhibited The Aphrodisiac Jacket and Monument to Kant . In June he took part in the International Surrealist Exhibition held at the New Burlington Galleries in London. He designed the cover for issue 8 of Minotaure magazine, in which he also illustrated Edward James ’ poem “ Trois s é cheresses ” , while his article “ The Spectral Surrealism of the Eternal Pre-Raphaelite Feminine ” was also published. In the following edition he published “ First Morphological Law on Hair in Soft Structures ” . Cahiers d ’ Art published his “ Honour to the Object! “ . S alvador Dal í exhibition at Alex Reid & Lefevre Gallery in London. On December14th, Time devoted its cover to him, with photography by Man Ray. He took part in the exhibition Fantastic Art Dada Surrealism at the MOMA in New York. His third individual exhibition was held at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York. He illustrated Notes sur le po é sie , by Andr é Breton and Paul Eluard. 1937 In February he met the Marx Brothers in Hollywood. Along with Harpo, he began work on the script for a film entitled Giraffes on Horseback Salad (but called in its latest version The Surrealist Woman ), which was never actually produced. Dal í and Gala returned to Europe. In Paris the Galerie Renou et Colle presented his portrait of Harpo Marx and the designs they had created together for the movie. É ditions Surr é alistes published his poem “ The Metamorphosis of Narcissus ” , which the gallery-owner Julien Levy also published at the same time in English. 1938 January 17th saw the inauguration at Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris of the Exposition Internationale du Surr é alisme, organised by Andr é Breton and Paul Eluard, with Salvador Dal í’ s Rainy Taxi exhibited at the entrance to the gallery. He took part in the exhibition Old and new "Trompe l'oeil" at the Julien Levy Gallery. In the spring, he exhibited at the Exposition Internationale du Surr é alisme held at the Galerie Robert in Amsterdam. In London, Dal í visited Sigmund Freud in the company of Stefan Zweig and Edward James.
1939 The Bonwit-Teller department stores in New York commissioned Salvador Dal í to produce the decor for two of their window displays. On the presentation day, the management changed certain features without telling Dal í . When Dal í saw that some of his creations had been altered a minor altercation ensued, and the artist was even held under arrest for a few hours. Also in the month of March he presented his individual exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery. He wrote an article entitled “ Dal í , Dal í ! ” for the exhibition. In May he signed a contract to take part in the World ’ s Fair of New York. He designed the Dream of Venus pavilion, which was presented in the Fair ’ s amusement zone. He published Declaration of the Independence of the Imagination and the Rights of Man to His Own Madness , in protest against the World ’ s Fair committee decision to prohibit him from exhibiting on the fa ç ade a reproduction of the Botticelli Venus with the head of a fish. The Metropolitan Opera House of New York staged the first performance of the ballet Bacchanale , with libretto, costumes and sets by Salvador Dal í and choreography by L é onide Massine. Breton ’ s article “ Latest Tendencies in Surrealist Painting ” brought about Dal í’ s expulsion from the surrealist group. In September the couple returned once more to Europe. 1940 The magazine L'Usage de la Parole published his article “ Bright Ideas. ‘ We Don ’ t Feed on that Light ’” . When the German troops entered Bordeaux, the Dal í couple left Arcachon, where they had been living for a while, and went to live in the United States, where they were to remain until 1948. Upon their arrival, they set up home at Caresse Crosby ’ s house in Hampton Manor (Virginia).