1.2.3. The Modern World (15-17 th C) a) The city during the Renaissance (15-16 th C) The Renaissance arises in the Republic of Florence, in the north of Italy. With the Renaissance, the architect will be valued again. The architect will be responsible for making projects of buildings and urban reforms in squares and streets. Examples of cities with alterations and Renaissance works: Florence Rome Pisa Milan Naples Úbeda Baeza
The dominant social groups start to live inside the cities, forming the urban nobility. From the 15 th C, the town scenery will hold a new type of building: the palazzi (palace) Lorenzo de Médici called “Il Magnífico”. He was an important patron. Plant and photo of the front of the Palacio Medici Riccardi. Its structure will inspire other Italian palaces. It was made by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo in the year 1444, ordered by Cosme de Médici « El viejo ». The Renaissance palaces
It is necessary to modify the medieval urban structure to make the singular buildings stand out: towers, palaces, churches... The first reflections about public space appear. The aims of the Renaissance projects . - Geometric proportion - Landscape - Control of public space (squares and streets) They make rules to regulate the fronts of the squares. Town-planners study the old Roman forums and take them as a reference in proportions and size. Campidoglio Square. Rome. 1536 Miguel Angel is the author of this square, ordered by the Pope Pablo III to welcome Carlos V. Town-planning Alterations
The market square in the medieval city will give rise to the ceremonial square, which will be a complement to the singular building it is enclosed to: basilica, palace... The squares will try to direct the attention to the singular building. They are centralized squares. The front of the square will have a unitary image. The square have an arcade and the pavement is designed .
Francesco di Giorgio: “Square of an ideal city", Baltimor, col. Walters.
The utopian cities of the Renaissance. Different architects write architectural treatises. In some of them, there are plans and ideas of ideal cities. Leon Battista Alberti (De Re Aedificatoria) Filarete (Trattato d’Architettura) Francesco di Giorgio Martini (Trattato di architettura civile e militare) Vincenzo Scamozzi (L’idea dell Archittetura Universale) Cover of De Re Aedificatoria by Alberti Scamozzi develops his ideal city, Palmanova. An example of ideal city which will be really built. Aerial view of Palmanova (North of Italy), nowadays.
The territorial situation in the region of Friuli-Venecia Julia, after (1511), was famous for a series of conflicts known as "a pelle di leopardo" (leopard skin) in places ruled by the Venetians and part of the archduchy of Austria. In order to make the defense stronger, Venice decided to build a citadel in the prairies of the region, which could stop the incursions of the Ottoman Empire.