Tiny apartments that were created as the result of the passing of the Tenement House Act of 1879. It required that every inhabitable room have a window opening to plain air, a requirement that was met by including air shafts between adjacent buildings. They were commonly called dumbbell tenements because the air shafts gave each tenement the shape of a dumbbell. These apartments were built in great number to house the growing number of European immigrants. While it was an effort to reform, the entire reform movement was a failure. People would throw their trash into the air shaft, creating fire hazards and unsanitary conditions. In addition, each room was ill ventilated and only the top few floors received sunlight.
Punto 1 mundo contemporáneo 1 inglés
1.2.4. Contemporary world (from 1789) With the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, the world changes and the appearance of the city changes again appropriate to the new times . The cities get into industrial features and grow a great deal. Bastille Day, painted in 1793 by Charles Thévenin Engraving which shows the inside of a textile factory. How will this affect to the cities? How will they change?
The colonial process is linked to the Industrial Revolution The businessmen try to reduce costs through…. -New energy resources -Fast transport -Division of labor -Mechanization - Creation of new spaces. - The outskirts appear (for industrial settlements). - Spacial separation between production and management of business activities. The urban working-class population is distributed in large arches around the city center. A lot of people emigrate to the big cities searching for a job. First slums , near the factories. + colonies +land + Demand of manufactured products Need to increase the production. The price of the soil changes The new distribution of the soil makes the areas inside the city more and more expensive. Thus the lower classes leave the center. The soil is valuable because it can be built on . The soil will have a new value: now it is also valuable because of the income you can get from it.
- Greeks: Hippodamian plan /grid plan Balance and order Easy to build A new colony is built in less time The soil at the 19th century industrial cities. -Romans: Hippodamian plan / grid plan Easy to build The new land is easier to colonize The cities were connected The city was the social, cultural and administrative center of the empire. Built to impress. Inspired in the military camps structure. But first let’s remember …
In the 19th century the grid plans will become common. In some cases the cities will be structured without any free space (as a park or a square) or any civic point ( something as the agora or a church). - The streets look all the same (same type of buildings all the time). The streets make the most of the space efficiently. The houses will have the same cost for the builder and most of the times, the same value. - The size and the distribution of the soil used for the buildings will be different depending on the function of the building. The monotony of the buildings look is broken when there is an alteration in the distribution of the soil used. The soil invested could have different sizes for different reasons.: a) Some antique or historical places have been respected (a church, a palace or a square) b) Some space has been destined for a specific collective or function . Floor plan of a dumbbell tenement The first built tenement dating back to the 1820's, 65 Mott St
Industrial Revolution and the city - Will take part in matters relative to urbanism. - Will create laws to regulate the constructions in the center of the cities. - Will take sanitary measures The government The urbanism will involve politics and society. The political power will take part in the conflicts between different social classes. Government interventions and reaction from industrialist. The indrustialist Social Conflicts: The bourgeoisie and the businessmen will be confronted against the workers who lived under subhuman conditions. The living conditions of the workers improved little by little thanks to the vindications and Trade Union negotiations. Few industrialists thought the workers live conditions would improve. The idea of the Garden City was born in this context as well as the utopian theories of architecture and urbanism .
b) Utopian Urbanism and Garden Cities . Robert Owen (1771-1858): la comunidad igualitaria He was the owner of a textile factory. In 1816 he planed a collective type of self-sufficient city supported by means of combining industry and agriculture. He applied his ideas at New Lanark (Scotland). In this community which textile factories where directed by him, child labor was forbidden, the working time was limited to 10 hours per day and the workers could buy food without abusive prices. Despite the profit margin was a little bit lower, he had good benefits . He attempted to apply his thoughts on a large scale creating a cooperative, self-sufficient and independent community in New Harmony (Indiana) but it never succeeded. Project to replace New Harmony. It was never built.
He was influenced by the social ideas of Robert Owen. As a result of his investigations he published <<Garden Cities of To-morrow>> in 1902 . This book gave rise to a new city model: The Garden City. This model was proposed as a response to the workers homelessness and the need of a new city concept with a different organization system. The new community will be located in a natural environment, far from the big city but well-connected by train. The inhabitants will have autonomy from the big city. The Garden City model offered a different economic and social model and allowed the people become part of it just by a regular contribution that was invested in the community. Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928): The Garden City
- Central public space around which the houses were build surrounded by green areas. - The green areas will be surrounded by round avenues where we will find schools, shops and administrative buildings. - The factories will be located at the outskirts of the town. Between them and the city will be a big extension of land in order to prevent the enlargement of the city by property speculators. Garden City : Letchworth (England)