Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation
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Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation

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Consumer Behavior

Consumer Behavior
Ninth Edition
Schiffman and Kanuk

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Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation
  • Chapter Outline
    • Model of the Motivation Process
    • Goals
    • Motives
    • Needs
    • Motivational Research
  • Needs and Motivation
    • Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs.
    • Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action.
    View slide
  • Figure 4.1 Model of the Motivation Process View slide
  • Types of Needs
    • Innate Needs
      • Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives
    • Acquired Needs
      • Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs
  • Is a body spray an innate or acquired need?
  • Goals
    • The sought-after results of motivated behavior
    • Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs
    • Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals
  • Figure 4-2a Goals Structure for Weight Control
  • Figure 4-2b Goals Structure for Weight Control
  • Figure 4-2c Goals Structure for Weight Control
  • Weight Control Giants weblink weblink
  • The Selection of Goals
    • The goals selected by an individual depend on their:
      • Personal experiences
      • Physical capacity
      • Prevailing cultural norms and values
      • Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment
  • Discussion Question
    • What are three generic goals you have set for yourself in the past year?
    • What are three product-specific goals you have set in the past year?
    • In what situations are these two related?
    • How were these goals selected? Was it personal experiences, physical capacity, or prevailing cultural norms and values?
  • Motivations and Goals
    • Positive
    • Motivation
      • A driving force toward some object or condition
    • Approach Goal
      • A positive goal toward which behavior is directed
    • Negative
    • Motivation
      • A driving force away from some object or condition
    • Avoidance Goal
      • A negative goal from which behavior is directed away
  • Rational versus Emotional Motives
    • Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon
    • Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria
  • Discussion Question
    • What products might be purchased using rational and emotional motives?
    • What marketing strategies are effective when there are combined motives?
  • The Dynamic Nature of Motivation
    • Needs are never fully satisfied
    • New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
    • People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves
  • Substitute Goals
    • Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need
    • The substitute goal will dispel tension
    • Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time
  • Frustration
    • Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration.
    • Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego.
  • Defense Mechanism
    • Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem
  • What type of defense mechanism is this spokesperson using in this ad?
  • Table 4.2 Defense Mechanisms
    • Aggression
    • Rationalization
    • Regression
    • Withdrawal
    • Projection
    • Autism
    • Identification
    • Repression
  • Arousal of Motives
    • Physiological arousal
    • Emotional arousal
    • Cognitive arousal
    • Environmental arousal
  • Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives
    • Behaviorist School
      • Behavior is response to stimulus
      • Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored
      • Consumer does not act, but reacts
    • Cognitive School
      • Behavior is directed at goal achievement
      • Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefs
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 4.10 weblink
  • Discussion Question
    • What are three types of products related to more then one level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
    • For each type of product – consider two brands. How do marketers attempt to differentiate their product from the competition?
  • Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects: Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige: Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance Needs Connected with Human Power: Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance
  • Table 4.3 (con’t) Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Sado-Masochistic Needs : Aggression, Abasement Needs Concerned with Affection between People: Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse: Cognizance, Exposition
  • This ad reflects a need for accomplishment with a toothpaste.
  • A Trio of Needs
    • Power
      • individual’s desire to control environment
    • Affiliation
      • need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging
    • Achievement
      • need for personal accomplishment
      • closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs
  • Measurement of Motives
    • Researchers rely on a combination of techniques
    • Combination of behavioral, subjective, and qualitative data
    • Construction of a measurement scale can be complex
  • Motivational Research
    • Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations
    • Attempts to discover underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions
  • Qualitative Motivational Research
    • Metaphor analysis
    • Storytelling
    • Word association and sentence completion
    • Thematic apperception test
    • Drawing pictures and photo-sorts
  • Many Companies Specialize in Motivational Research weblink we blink