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Strategic Management

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  1. 1. Chapter 5 Internal Analysis
  2. 2. Chapter Topics <ul><li>Resource-based View of the Firm </li></ul><ul><li>Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Analysis: Making Meaningful Comparisons </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ingredients Critical to Successful Strategy Strategy must … Be consistent with conditions in the competitive environment Place realistic requirements on the firm’s resources Be carefully executed
  4. 4. What is the Resource-based View of the Firm? Firms differ in fundamental ways because each firm possesses a unique “bundle” of resources – tangible and intangible assets and organizational capabilities to make use of those assets
  5. 5. The Three Basic Resources <ul><li>Tangible assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easiest to identify and often found on a firm’s balance sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include physical and financial assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: production facilities, raw materials, financial resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intangible assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be seen or touched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often very critical in creating competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: brand names, company reputation, company morale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve skills – ability to combine assets, people, and processes – used to transform inputs into outputs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Ex. 5-2: Examples of Different Resources (selected) Coke’s global distribution coordination Katie Couric as NBC’s “Today” host Georgia Pacific’s land holdings Sony’s product development process Nike’s advertising with LeBron James 3M’s patents Wal-mart’s purchasing and inbound logistics Dell Computer’s reputation Ford Motor’s cash reserves Dell Computer’s customer service Budweiser’s brand name Hampton Inn’s reservation system Organizational Capabilities Intangible Assets Tangible Assets
  7. 7. What Makes a Resource Valuable? <ul><li>Competitive superiority: Does the resource help fulfill a customer’s need better than those of the firm’s competitors? </li></ul><ul><li>Resource scarcity : Is the resource in short supply? </li></ul><ul><li>Inimitability : Is the resource easily copied or acquired? </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriability : Who actually gets the profit created by a resource? </li></ul><ul><li>Durability : How rapidly will the resource depreciate? </li></ul><ul><li>Substitutability ? Are other alternatives available? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Isolating Mechanisms <ul><li>Physically unique resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources virtually impossible to imitate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., one-of-a-kind real estate location, mineral rights, patents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Path-dependent resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources that must be created over time in a manner that is often expensive and difficult to accelerate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Dell Computer’s system of direct sales of customized PCs via the Internet, Coca-Cola’s brand name, Gerber Baby Food’s reputation for quality </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Isolating Mechanisms <ul><li>Causal ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situations where it is difficult for competitors to understand how a firm has created its advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Southwest Airlines’ approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same plane, routes, gate procedures, number of attendants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture of fun, family, and frugal yet focused service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic deterrence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves large capital investments in capacity to produce products or services in a given market that are scale sensitive </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Ex. 5-4: Resource Inimitability (Adapted) <ul><li>Easy to imitate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash, commodities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be imitated (but may not be) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity preemption, economies of scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficult to imitate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand loyalty, employee satisfaction, reputation for fairness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cannot be imitated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patents, unique locations, unique assets </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Guidelines: Using the RBV in Internal Analysis <ul><li>Disaggregate resources – break them down into more specific competencies rather than use broad categories </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize a functional perspective in disaggregating tangible and intangible assets and organizational capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Look at organizational processes and combinations of resources , not only at isolated assets or capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Use the value chain approach to uncover potentially valuable capabilities, activities, and processes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ex. 5-6: Key Resources Across Functional Areas (Selected) <ul><li>Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Firm’s products/services </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of sales in a few products or a few customers </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to gather needed information about markets </li></ul><ul><li>Market share </li></ul><ul><li>Product-service mix and expansion potential </li></ul><ul><li>Channels of distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Effective sales organization </li></ul><ul><li>Financial and Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to raise short-term and long-term capital; debt-equity </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate-level resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of capital relative to competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Tax considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with owners, investors, and stockholders </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage position </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of entry and barriers to entry </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ex. 5-6 (contd.) <ul><li>Production, Operations, Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials cost and availability, supplier relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory control systems </li></ul><ul><li>Location, layout, and use of facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Technical efficiency of facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of subcontracting use </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of vertical integration </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Management personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Employees’ skills and morale </li></ul><ul><li>Labor relations costs compared to competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency and effectiveness of personnel policies </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of incentives used to motivate performance </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to level peaks and valleys of employment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ex. 5-6 (contd.) <ul><li>Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with suppliers, customers </li></ul><ul><li>Internal practices to enhance quality of products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for monitoring quality </li></ul><ul><li>Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness and accuracy of information about sales, operations, cash, and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance of information for tactical decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Information to manage quality issues, customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Ability of people to use information provided </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ex. 5-6 (contd.) <ul><li>Organization and General Management </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structure </li></ul><ul><li>Firm’s image and prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Firm’s record in achieving objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of communication system </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational climate and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Use of systematic procedures in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Top management skills, capabilities, and interest </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic planning system </li></ul><ul><li>Intra-organizational synergy </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is a Value Chain? The term value chain describes a way of looking at a business as a chain of activities that transform inputs into outputs that customers value
  17. 17. What is Value Chain Analysis? <ul><li>Focuses on how a business creates customer value by examining contributions of different internal activities to that value </li></ul><ul><li>Divides a business into a set of activities within the business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts with inputs a firm receives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishes with firm’s products or services and after-sales service to customers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows for better identification of a firm’s strengths and weaknesses since the business is viewed as a process </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ex. 5-7: The Value Chain General Administration Human Resource Management Research, Technology, and Systems Development Procurement Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing and Sales Service Margin Margin Primary Activities Support Activities
  19. 19. Conducting a Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Identify activities </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate costs </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the difficulty in activity-based cost accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the activities that differentiate the firm </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Develop meaningful comparisons to use when evaluating value activities </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ex. 5-10: Possible Factors for Assessing Sources of Differentiation in Primary and Support Activities of the Value Chain (selected items) <ul><li>General Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Capability to identify new product market opportunities and potential environmental threats </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of strategic planning system to achieve corporate objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to obtain relatively low-cost funds for capital expenditures and working capital </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resource Management </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of procedures for recruiting, training, and promoting all levels of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness of reward system for motivating and challenging employees </li></ul><ul><li>A work environment minimizing absenteeism and keeping turnover low </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ex. 5-10 (contd.) <ul><li>Technology Development </li></ul><ul><li>Success of R&D activities in leading to product and process innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of working relationships between R&D personnel and other departments </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness of technology development activities in meeting critical deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement </li></ul><ul><li>Development of alternate sources for inputs to minimize dependence on a single supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement of raw materials (1) on a timely basis, (2) at lowest possible cost, and (3) at acceptable levels of quality </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for procurement of plant, machinery, and buildings </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ex. 5-10 (contd.) Effectiveness of production control systems to improve quality and improve costs Efficiency of finished goods warehousing activities Appropriate automation of production processes Efficiency of raw material warehousing activities Timeliness and efficiency of delivery of finished goods and services Productivity of equipment compared to key competitors Soundness of material and inventory control systems Outbound Logistics Operations Inbound Logistics
  23. 23. Ex. 5-10 (contd.) <ul><li>Marketing and Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of research to identify customer segments and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation in sales promotion and advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of alternate distribution channels </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and compensation of sales force </li></ul><ul><li>Development of quality image and favorable reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul><ul><li>Means to solicit customer input for product improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Promptness of attention to customer complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness of warranty and guarantee policies </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of customer education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to provide replacement parts and repair services </li></ul>
  24. 24. SWOT Analysis Based on assumption an effective strategy derives from a sound “fit” between a firm’s internal resources and its external situation Opportunities A major favorable situation in a firm’s environment Threats A major unfavorable situation in a firm’s environment Strengths A resource advantage relative to competitors and the needs of markets firm serves Weaknesses A limitation or deficiency in one or more resources or competencies relative to competitors
  25. 25. Ex. 5-12: SWOT Analysis Diagram Numerous environmental opportunities Major environmental threats Critical internal weaknesses Substantial internal strengths Cell 3: Supports a turnaround-oriented strategy Cell 4: Supports a defensive strategy Cell 1: Supports an aggressive strategy Cell 2: Supports a diversification strategy
  26. 26. Internal Analysis: Making Meaningful Comparisons Perspectives to use 1. Comparison with past performance 2. Stages of industry evolution 3. Benchmarking – comparison with competitors 4. Comparison with success factors in industry
  27. 27. Ex. 5-13: Sources of Distinctive Competence at Different Stages of Industry Evolution Cost effective means of efficient access to selected channels and markets; strong customer loyalty or dependence; strong company image Skills in aggressively promoting products to new markets and holding existing markets; pricing flexibility; skills in differentiating products and holding customer loyalty Ability to establish brand recognition, find niche, reduce price, solidify strong distribution relations, and develop new channels Resources/skills to create widespread awareness and find acceptance from customers ; advantageous access to distribution Marketing Decline Maturity Growth Introduction Functional Area
  28. 28. Ex. 5-13 (contd.) Ability to prune product line; cost advantage in production, location or distribution; simplified inventory control; subcontracting or long production runs Ability to improve product and reduce costs; ability to share or reduce capacity; advantageous supplier relationships; subcontracting Ability to add product variants, centralize production, or otherwise lower costs; ability to improve product quality; seasonal subcontracting capacity Ability to expand capacity effectively, limit number of designs, develop standards Production operations Decline Maturity Growth Introduction Functional Area
  29. 29. Ex. 5-13 (contd.) Ability to reuse or liquidate unneeded equipment; advantage in cost of facilities; control system accuracy; streamlined management control Ability to generate and redistribute increasing net cash inflows; effective cost control systems Ability to finance rapid expansion, to have net cash outflows but increasing profits; resources to support product improvements Resources to support high net cash overflow and initial losses; ability to use leverage effectively Finance Decline Maturity Growth Introduction Functional Area
  30. 30. Ex. 5-13 (contd.) Capacity to reduce and reallocate personnel Ability to cost effectively, reduce workforce, increase efficiency Existence of an ability to add skilled personnel; motivated and loyal workforce Flexibility in staffing and training new management; existence of employees with key skills in new products or markets Personnel Decline Maturity Growth Introduction Functional Area
  31. 31. Ex. 5-13 (contd.) Finance: maximum investment recovery Production efficiency: successor products Sales: consumer loyalty; market share Engineering: market penetration Key functional area and strategy focus Ability to support other grown areas or to apply product to unique customer needs Ability to reduce costs, develop variants, differentiate products Skill in quality and new feature development; ability to start developing successor product Ability to make engineering changes, have technical bugs in product and process resolved Engineering and R&D Decline Maturity Growth Introduction Functional Area