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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

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  • 1. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 17 Facilitating Pre-Academic and Cognitive Learning
  • 2. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cognitive Development and Emerging Literacy • Involves reading, writing, listening, and speaking. • Functionally illiterate are those who cannot perform well in one of those areas. • Large numbers of children are coming to school without the experiences needed to learn literacy skills.
  • 3. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cognitive Development and Emerging Literacy (continued) • Defining Pre-Academics – This includes the whole child: physical activities, social interactions, and creative and affective development. – More than just paper-and-pencil activities are included. – Children are active explorers of their world. – Child-initiated activities are key to cognitive growth and development.
  • 4. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cognitive Development and Emerging Literacy (continued) • What brain research tells us – Infants’ brains are extremely active and busy. – Synapses are being formed. – The brain functions on a use-it or lose-it principle. – Nature and nurture play a role in the development of the brain. – Early care has decisive and long-lasting impact on children’s brain development.
  • 5. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cognitive Development and Emerging Literacy (continued) – There are sensitive periods for learning that only come around once. – Negative experiences or lack of stimulation have serious, sustained effects on the brain. – Intensive intervention is necessary to lessen the effects of disabilities.
  • 6. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Banning Academics: ILL Advised? • Academic skills are appropriate for preschoolers. • They should be a part of the play experience. • Preschoolers thrive on absorbing these new experiences. • Paper-and-pencil tasks and workbooks should be avoided.
  • 7. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences • Direct teaching – The teacher directly teaches a concept. – The teacher also blends direct teaching with an indirect and facilitative approach.
  • 8. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Embedded Learning – Children practice new skills and learn individualized goals within the regular classroom activities. – Clarify objective. – Determine current level of performance. – Determine times and places during the classroom day.
  • 9. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) – Design instructional interaction. – Implement instruction. – Establish data collection.
  • 10. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Computers and assistive technology – Computers allow children to develop independent skills that they cannot do otherwise. – Computer software needs to be developmentally appropriate. – Evaluate software for inappropriate content and violence. – Computers enable a child to develop eye- hand coordination.
  • 11. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Fostering eagerness to learn – Children need to be encouraged to explore the environment, ask questions, and problem solve. – They need to involve all their senses. – Teachers need to support this eagerness.
  • 12. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Engaging children’s minds – Teachers show children how to record their thoughts. – Teachers write down what a child says and then teach the child to read. – It is then a recording of a child’s experiences for the future.
  • 13. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Valuing today’s learning – Make learning real. – Match children to activities that are developmentally appropriate and encourage their eagerness to learn.
  • 14. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Readiness skills – Readiness as maturation – Readiness as learning – Teacher needs to identify readiness skills that may be missing based upon developmental sequences – Language readiness
  • 15. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Attention span – The length of time an individual is able to concentrate on an activity is critical to all learning. – Classrooms that are organized and inviting help children attend to a task and extend their attention span.
  • 16. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Imitation and modeling – Imitation is the key to learning new skills. – A child imitates the model to see how a skill is performed. – If a child is having difficulty imitating: • Imitate them • Provide models at their developmental level • Provide assistance and be directive • Make it fun and give encouraging feedback
  • 17. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Perceptual motor skills – Understanding sensory messages and translating them – Sensory integration—involving more than one sense in a response – Activities need to be planned to support the use of senses for learning
  • 18. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Fine motor skills – Eye-hand coordination and the use of fingers, wrists, and hands – Essential for self-care skills – Goes together with perceptual motor skills
  • 19. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Concept formation – Internal images or ideas that organize thinking – Help us to make sense of our world – Discrimination—likenesses and differences – Classification—imposing order – Seriation—arranging objects in order – Spatial and temporal relationships—how things go together in space and time
  • 20. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Memory – Long-term memory refers to events that happened a while ago. – Short-term memory refers to events in the recent past. – Memory is essential to learning and building upon skills.
  • 21. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued) • Following directions – Children do best when directions are clear. – One direction at a time is more likely to be completed than multiple-step directions. – Teachers should get down on the child’s level to give the directions.
  • 22. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. • Emergent Literacy – Rich teacher talk – Storybook reading – Phonological Awareness Activities – Alphabet Activities – Support for Emergent Reading – Support for Emergent Writing – Shared Book Experience – Integrate Content Focused Activities Developmentally Appropriate Pre-Academic Experiences (continued)
  • 23. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Planning and Presenting Pre-Academics • Pre-reading, pre-writing, and pre-math skills – Skills are presented in small group settings. – Children should be grouped by ability. – Materials are carefully chosen to enhance skill development.
  • 24. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Planning and Presenting Pre-Academics (continued) • Grouping children – Group by age. – Group by ability. – Groups should change as the skill levels change. – The number is set by the number of children and adults in the room.
  • 25. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Planning and Presenting Pre-Academics (continued) • Arranging Pre-Academic group activities – Advance preparation – Familiar and preferred materials and activities – Individual workspace with name cards – Individual setups – Short periods – Moving about – Changing tasks – Transition activities
  • 26. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Planning and Presenting Pre-Academics (continued) • Enjoying teacher-directed activities – If children are engaged and learning, teachers are happy. – Teachers spend more time planning and creating lessons. – The lessons are more fun. – Children continue to learn.