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Chapter04 allen7e

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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

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Chapter04 allen7e

  1. 1. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 4 Normal and Exceptional Development
  2. 2. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Is Normal or Typical Development? • This implies an ongoing process of growing, changing, and acquiring a range of complex skills. • Beginning in earliest infancy, the process moves along a developmental continuum according to a predictable pattern common to most children of the same age.
  3. 3. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Is Normal or Typical Development? (continued) • Developmental sequences – Children learn skills in a sequence. – Based on their age, we know what skills the child should learn next. • Developmental milestones – This is the order in which the child will learn the skills from the developmental sequence.
  4. 4. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Is Normal or Typical Development? (continued) • Infancy – Brain research has greatly improved. – Many studies have been done on early brain stimulation and the lasting effects. – Infants need caregivers and parents to offer activities, materials, and communication to enhance brain development.
  5. 5. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Is Normal or Typical Development? (continued) • Infancy (continued) – Attachment has begun through the give and take between the caregiver and the child. – The infant is Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of development. • Learning through movement and their senses
  6. 6. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Is Normal or Typical Development? (continued) • Toddlerhood – This lasts from 18 to 36 months of age. – Toilet training may begin. – Independence is sought. – The word “mine” enters the vocabulary.
  7. 7. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Is Normal or Typical Development? (continued) • Preschool years—ages three to five – Children are developing creativity. – Language is used correctly and understood by most older people. – Physical skills are greatly improved. – Empathy toward others and sharing are apparent.
  8. 8. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Is Normal or Typical Development? (continued) • Primary years – Learning to read is a major milestone for this group. – Best friends and friendships are important. – Self-care skills are done independently. – Growth is slowed but still continues.
  9. 9. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Is Atypical or Exceptional Development? • Developmental disabilities – A child is unable to perform like typically developing peers, but the potential for growth is still present. • Developmental delay – This exists when a child is performing like a child who is typically developing of a much younger age.
  10. 10. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Children and Developmental Risk • Biological risks – Birth defects – Chromosomal abnormalities – Heart defects • Environmental risks – Poverty – Child abuse and neglect
  11. 11. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Children and Developmental Risk (continued) • Resilience and vulnerability – Resilient children take the worst and make the best out of it. – Vulnerable children do not recover from the worst and continue in a downward spiral.
  12. 12. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Children and Developmental Risk (continued) • Children with special gifts and talents – Theory of multiple intelligences • Gardner says there are eight. Everyone has one intelligence that is stronger than the others. – Gifted and talented children • They may be at risk, due to the lack of funding provided for these children.
  13. 13. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Children and Developmental Risk (continued) • Characteristics of young gifted and children – Have advanced vocabulary – Learn quickly – Are curious – Find and solve difficult and unusual problems
  14. 14. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Children and Developmental Risk (continued) • Gifted minority children – Gifted programs were originally developed for white middle-class students. – Assessments tend to be biased. – Economically disadvantaged children tend to be overlooked. – English as a second language learners are also not readily identified.
  15. 15. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Children and Developmental Risk (continued) • Children with developmental disabilities who are gifted – Yes, you can have a disability and be gifted at the same time—sometimes even in the same developmental domain. – Children with disabilities still need to be considered for gifted programs. – Identification needs to come from classroom observations, not purely test scores.

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