Through the 10th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, the states receive the right to control public education. Therefore, requirements and regulations vary throughout the country. It may be surprising to know that kindergarten is not required in most states. Only 8 states, The District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands require school enrollment by the age of five, while 40 states and American Samoa require school attendance by the age of six or seven (Bush, 2010). The vast majority of states (48 states in all) require that the kindergarten entrance age of five must be reached before January 1stof the school year (Paulson, 2007). Unless living in one of the eight states that requires school attendance by the age of five, kindergarten is not required, and students can legally start formal education in first grade. Eight states in the U.S. do not even require that school districts offer kindergarten. With all of these facts and policies in place, most children in the United States do participate in Kindergarten – an impressive 98% of children complete kindergarten before entering first grade (Kauerz, 2005a). The age of most kindergarteners is five or 6 years old.Kindergarten is not what it once was, however. “Kindergartens were first introduced in this country as nurturing, play-based programs, intended to enhance children’s cognitive, physical, and social development to smooth the transition into formal schooling” (Kauerz, 2005a). However, with an push in this country for higher academic standards, in an increasingly fast moving world, kindergarten is changing from a play-centered, transitional stage to a full-on academic stage. Anne Stoudt, a kindergarten teacher from New Jersey says, “just a decade ago, only 15 percent of kindergartners were readers. If we go back 30 years, the number shrinks to only 5 percent” (Scott Curwood,para. 3). Some states, such as Illinois, now include reading as part of kindergarten standards in language arts ("Illinois early learning," 2013).
“Research consistently backs what early elementary teachers know: Imaginative play is the catalyst for social, physical, emotional, and moral development in young children. With guidance from an observant teacher, kindergartners can use imaginative play to make sense of the world around them—and lay the critical groundwork for understanding words and numbers. ‘Play facilitates the growth of children’s reasoning abilities,’ says David Elkind, Ph.D., author of The Power of Play. Through classifying objects (cars, shells, beads) and through experimentation (water play, clay), children learn to make inferences and draw conclusions. ‘Children’s questions are a form of mastery play,” says Elkind. “In asking questions, children are creating their own learning experiences’” (Scott Curwood, para. 8-9)
With all of this information in mind, one must come to the conclusion that the design and implementation of kindergarten classrooms should be focused around active play with teacher observation and guidance in order to promote development in all areas: cognitive, physical, emotional, and social. Academics can be incorporated into play, however the focus should not be on testing and achieving academic results, rather the internal development of the child should be concentrated on in order to better prepare children for first grade and on.The classicdesign of "centers“ for classrooms is so popular for a reason -- it works. Using centers allows educators to focus on different aspects of development separately, while staying in the same space. It is also important to remember that 5-6 year old children have a limited attention span; too much time should not be spent on one aspect of development at a time. Having centers that the students can rotate through keeps children engaged. Centers may also teach them to be patient. Patience is an important emotional development used to control impulsive behavior. When they may want to go to one specific center, but need to wait or their turn, they are taught that waiting isn't necessarily bad. The classroom will be filled with bright colors and multiple activities for children to explore, along with different textures, such as carpet and wood flooring. Round group tables, instead of desks would encourage children to work together, giving each table a set of supplies that they must learn to share. This is important for social development in young children. Along with the tables that seat 4 children each, there will also be a large round table where the children can pull up their chairs and work on whole-class activities. The classroom will have large windows all around the room, as well as skylights so that natural light can be utilized. A 1:8 teacher to student ratio makes sense in kindergarten; this allows for plenty of one on one time for each student. Teacher involvement in student activities is necessary sometimes, since challenging tasks promote more cognitive growth than tasks that are easily completed by a child (Ormrod, 2011). This also promotes safety since young children need more supervision than older students. Because active play is so important in the role of learning at this age, a large playground should be close at hand for free play outside. The playground equipment should be age appropriate, but also offer some challenges to promote physical development.
"The technologies that benefit young children the greatest are those that are interactive and allow the child to develop their curiosity, problem solving and independent thinking skills" (Kneas & Perry, 2013, para. 7). The problem with some forms of technology in early childhood classrooms is that they are too passive. Young children need to be actively engaged in their learning in order to get the most out of educational activities. As we have read in our text, from the ages of two through 6, the brain has an excessive amount of synapses, so that the plasticity of the brain is maximized. However, when those synapses are not used, they are pruned, in order to allow space for development of the synapses that are being used (Berk, 2012). Plopping a 5 or 6-year-old in front of a television is a poor way to use technology in early education.However, use of the computer can be a great way to individualize and support learning. Websites such as abcmouse.com allow students to have their own log in information and stores their progress. This is an excellent way to not only monitor individual progress of students, but also allow them to move at their own pace. Computers give students an interactive outlet to learn. The brain is wired to automatically prefer visually presented information (Kneas & Perry, 2013, para 4), and so it seems like common sense to provide the use of computers as a tool that they will not only learn from, but also have fun with. "The ages of 2 - 6 are often called the 'play years'... play supports every aspect of development" (Berk, 2012, p. 289), and so play should be incorporated into learning as much as possible. These websites teach children the fundamentals of colors, numbers, letters, and much more, while they are playing games.On top of the cognitive development value technology can bring to the classroom, there are other aspects that technology can apply to. Technology can aid a teacher in using positive reinforcement, allowing a student that has been especially well behaved or completed their work early to “play” educational games on an iPad. Another role that technology can play in the classroom is to allow real time communication with other students around the world, incorporating social development along with cultural diversity. “With classrooms in 200 countries and territories, ePals makes it easy to connect learners locally, nationally or internationally” (“ePals global community,” 2012).
Educators need to keep in mind that across cultural boundaries, there are different ideas about what intelligence actually is, such as advancement in academics, social behavior, understanding of morals, and contributions to society (Ormrod, 2011). Also, there are different ideas about what behaviors reflect intelligence. For instance, in some cultures, talking too much can be seen as a sign of low intelligence, and responding quickly to a question can be seen as a sign of low or high intelligence: high if the culture stresses the importance of knowing, low if the culture stresses the importance of thinking before responding. Also, things such as making eye contact can be seen as disrespectful in some cultures, whereas in the U.S., when someone doesn't make eye contact with you, it is seen as a negative attribute (Ormrod, 2011).The only way to truly include culturally diverse populations in the classroom is to understand firstly, that not all cultures value the same things that we do in the typical "American culture". Looking past this ideal, and doing some research about our students and their cultures would be beneficial. To be able to understand the things that are most valued and the behaviors that are seen as acceptable and unacceptable can help us, as teachers, to include all of our students in classroom activities and learning. For instance, we may need to remove the idea from our heads that the first person to raise their hand when questions are asked knows the answers the "best". In some cultures, typically the ones that are more collectivistic, children are taught not to stand out from the group. To be the first student to raise your hand would look boastful to some, and students may refrain from doing this based on their culture. It may be a better practice, when we have students in our classroom that are from cultures that have this belief, to refrain from using too many activities that encourage children to compete with one another, and instead plan more group activities, so that one student is not singled out, but rather the aim is for groups to work together in order to contribute to a final goal.Some classrooms or schools may have diversity built in, as living in certain cities or regions includes living with a more diverse group of individuals. However, even in these situations it is possible that children, who are not predisposed to any belief about ethnicity, race, or religion could be influenced by parents that may not value diversity or equality. It is the job of educators to make sure that students understand differences. It is differences that make the world a great place.
Teachers in any classroom should be aware of the different types of learning styles and intelligences that their students may posess. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory claims that all people fall into eight different categories of intelligence. These categories areLinguistic intelligence – This is the ability to use spoken and written language effectively to express yourself.Logical-mathematical intelligence – This is the ability to analyze problems logically, work effectively with mathematical operations, and investigate issues using the scientific method. Musical intelligence – This is the ability to perform, compose, and appreciate musical patterns, including changes in pitch, tone, and rhythm. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence – This is the ability to use the body for expression. Professional dancers and athletes are good examples of this. Spatial intelligence – This is the ability to recognize, use, and interpret images and patterns and to reproduce objects in three dimensions. Interpersonal intelligence – This is the ability to understand people's intentions, motivations, and desires. This intelligence allows individuals to work well with others. Intrapersonal intelligence – This is the ability to understand yourself, and to interpret and appreciate your own feelings and motivations. Naturalist intelligence – This is the ability to recognize and appreciate our relationship with the natural world("Gardner's multiple intelligences," ).Providingmany different types of activities and assessments that include all of the different intelligences is crucial in teaching as well as assessing student understanding. See the activities below for examples addressing multiple intelligences.
Kindergarten Activity Cognitive Development #1 – Ages 5 - 6Title of Activity: End of Class Read AloudTopic or Main Idea: Reading Comprehension (Cognitive Development) Objectives: Children should understand what an author is and where to find an author’s name on a book. Children should understand what an illustrator is and where to find the illustrator’s name on a book. Children should know what the title page of a book is and where to find it in a book. Children should be able to identify the type of reading material; i.e. Fiction book, newspaper, poem, nonfiction book, etc. and the purpose of the different types of material.Standards Used: Illinois Early Learning Standard 2.A: Demonstrate comprehension of text that is read aloud or seen in print. &2.B: Identify elements pertaining to the craft and structure of types of text.Benchmark 2.A.ECa: Retell or reenact a story. Benchmark 2.A.ECb: Ask and answer appropriate questions about a story.Benchmark 2.A.ECc: Predict what will happen next using pictures and content for guides.Benchmark 2.A.ECd: Identify facts and concepts from informational text read aloud.Benchmark 2.B.ECa: Identify the title, author, and illustrator of the story, with prompting and support. Benchmark 2.B.ECb: Distinguish between informational texts (e.g. newspaper report, book about butterflies), fiction (e.g. folk and fairy tales; stories, realistic fiction) and poetry (e.g., finger plays, nursery rhymes, etc.) with assistance. (Illinois State University, 2011)Materials: Multiple reading materials: short books, newspaper articles, magazines, comic books, poems, etc. (1 per day), space for children to gather, something for teacher to sit on.Activity: Before beginning this activity, teachers should instruct students on the different types of reading materials and what purpose they have. Newspapers can be informative or for entertainment, Fiction books are for entertainment, Non-fiction is informative, Poems are entertainment, etc. Children should also be taught what an author and illustrator do and be shown where to find their names on different types of reading materials. Children should be shown the title page of a book, be told its name and what information they can find on it.1. At the end of each day, with about 10 minutes left, the teacher should announce to the children that it is time for reading. Children should sit on the floor facing the teacher in a group.2. Before beginning to read aloud, the teacher should ask what an author does. Children will raise their hands. The teacher should give about 30 seconds for children to think and then call on a student to answer. 3. Next, the teacher should ask what an illustrator does. Again, the teacher should wait a few moments for the children to think and then call on a student to answer.4. If either answer is incorrect, the teacher should clarify the understanding of the student with the correct answer.5. Next, the teacher should ask the students where the title page is located, wait for students to think and then call on a student, who should come to the teacher and open the book to the title page. 6. The teacher should then read the title page, emphasizing the author and illustrator of the book.7. About half way through the book, the teacher should ask students what they think will happen next and why.8. After the reading material has been read, the teacher should ask students if they have any questions. The teacher should answer or have another student answer relevant questions only, explaining why a question is not relevant if one is asked.9. The next morning, the teacher should ask the students to tell her about the story that they read the day before.Assessment: By calling on different students each day, assessment can be made by rating the answer given in regards to relevance and accuracy. The teacher should keep a chart to track which child is called on for which questions and rate their answer from 1 to 3. 1 = no understanding, 2 = some understanding, 3 = complete understanding. Goals for student improvement can be shared with parents to repeat activities at home.
Kindergarten Activity Cognitive Development – Ages 5 - 6Title of Activity: Secret MailTopic or Main Idea: Critical Thinking (Cognitive Development) Objectives: Children will learn to ask relevant questions in order to find out what is contained in the mailbox. Standards Used: Illinois Early Learning Standard 4.A:Demonstrate understanding through age-appropriate responses, Standard 12.C: Explore the physical properties of objects. Benchmark 4.A.ECb: Show understanding by asking and answering relevant questions or adding comments relevant to the topic Benchmark 12.C.ECa: Identify, describe and compare the physical properties of objects (University of Illinois, 2011).Materials: Small Mailbox, random items to place in mailbox each week (or everyday!)Activity: Before beginning this activity, Children should be told that the classroom receives secret mail sometimes and that if the teacher shakes the mail box, children should come quietly and sit on the rug. The teacher needs to place an item in the box before the activity begins. This activity should be used as filler – 5 or 10 minutes where there is a gap between activities.1. Teacher begins the activity by shaking the mailbox slightly, without speaking.2. Next, a game similar to “20 questions” takes place. (Children MUST raise their hands and be called on. Talking out should be ignored during this activity.)3. Children must ask questions about the item in the mailbox. Questions should be about characteristics of the item: the color, if it has hair, if it is an animal, if it is a plant, etc. Irrelevant questions should be addressed by the teacher in the moment. (For instance, if a student asks if the item is an animal, the teacher says no, and then the next student guesses that the item is a dog, the teacher should address this. Whether the student was not paying attention to the question before theirs, or they didn’t understand that a dog is an animal, and therefore couldn’t be the item.)4. If a child guesses what the item is incorrectly, they are out, and must return to their desk. (This discourages the children from guessing random things before there is enough information known about the item.)5. The child to identify the item correctly receives positive reinforcement with a trip to the “prize box” or a special prize that the teacher already has.Assessment: Assessment will take place over several weeks of repeating this activity. Students should start to ask more relevant questions and identify the item quicker over time. Children that do not raise their hands should be called on to ask questions, encouraging them to participate. The teacher can observe an improvement in the questions and guesses or may see stagnation or decline, in which case she should contact parents.
Kindergarten Activity Emotional Development – Ages 5 - 6Title of Activity: About MeTopic or Main Idea: Self-Awareness (Emotional Development) Objectives: Children will learn to value their unique characteristics, while discovering that they share many characteristics with others as well.Standards Used: Standard 31.B: Recognize own uniqueness and personal qualities.Benchmark 31.B.ECa: Describe self using several basic characteristics.Benchmark 31.B.ECb: Recognize self as unique individual, having his or her own abilities, characteristics, feelings, thoughts, interests and preferences. (University of Illinois, 2011). Materials: List of characteristics a person can have written on the board or displayed on an overhead projector (see below for example), crayons, white paper with each student’s name written in black in the center of the page. Activity: Before beginning this activity, Children should be taught about personal characteristics and how all people are a little different than one another but also share some qualities.1. The teacher should either have words listed on the board and look the definitions up in the dictionary (or online) OR use an overhead projector or smart board to use a list that has already been created.2. The teacher should then tell the children that when she lists a word that they think applies to them, they should write it on their page, big or small, green or blue, however they choose.3. The teacher starts with the first word on her list, reads it aloud and then reads the definition. Teacher then asks the class, “does anyone think this characteristics describes them?” If anyone raises their hand, or says yes, she should then slowly spell the word while pointing to each letter on the overhead or board.4. Children will write all of the characteristics that they feel belong to them on the paper with their name on it.5. The next day, children will come to the front of the class and tell their classmates about their characteristics and why they chose the ones they did.Assessment: Assessment is done purely by teacher observation. Children should show pride in themselves when sharing their characteristics with the class. And they should have a minimum of 4 words written around their name. This activity can be done at the beginning of the school year, and again at the end of the school year, allowing the children to compare the differences.
Kindergarten ActivityEmotional Activity - Ages 5 - 6Title of Activity: Courage CardsTopic or Main Idea: Supports Emotional DevelopmentObjectives: Children should be able to identify ways to handle being scared, sad, or angry with the assistance of a teacher and classmates.Standards Used: Illinois Early Learning Standards - Social/Emotional Development – State Goal 31: Develop self-awareness and self-management skills to achieve school and life success BENCHMARKS31.A.Ka Recognize emotions and how they are linked to behavior.State Goal 32: Use social-awareness and interpersonal skills to establish and maintain positive relationships. Learning Standard A: Recognize the feelings and perspectives of others.BENCHMARKS32.A.Ka Learn to identify the feelings and perspectives of others.32.A.Kb Use observational and listening skills to identify the feelings and perspectives of others.32.A.Kc Have positive relationships with one or two peers, and show the capacity to care about them("Illinois early learning," 2013).Materials: art supplies, pre-labeled index cards (Scared face with S-C-A-R-E-D, Sad face with S-A-D, angry face with A-N-G-R-Y), child-safe scissors, self laminating sheets, large sheet of paperActivity:1. Start by hanging a large piece of paper on the board in the front of the classroom, labeled with three Columns: Scared, Sad, and Angry. 2. Ask your students what helps them feel better when they are scared, sad, or angry. Students should raise their hand to answer for each feeling. Record their ideas on the paper for all to see, including quick sketches for nonreaders. Suggestions might include a flashlight, a favorite stuffed animal, or getting a hug. 3. Next, ask students to draw pictures on appropriate index card of whatever it is that helps them to feel better. Have them print their names on the back of their cards4. Laminate the cards, and ask the students to cut them out. Your students can carry these pocket-sized courage cards with them wherever they go!(WGBH Educational Foundation)Assessment: Assessment can be made as to the success of this activity in students’ development based on observation of their involvement. Students that seem hesitant to participate need to be encouraged, and possibly paired with a student that is participating actively.
Kindergarten Activity Physical Development – Ages 4+Title of Activity: Cha-Cha SlideTopic or Main Idea: Coordination, memory, and listening skills (Physical Development) Objectives: The first objective of this activity is for children to have fun! Children should also increase in their ability to follow the instructions in the video and coordinate their movements as the school year progresses.Standards Used: Illinois Early Learning Standards, State Goal 19: Acquire movement skills and understand concepts needed to engage in health-enhancing physical activity.Learning Standard A: Demonstrate physical competency in individual and team sports, creative movement, and leisure and work-related activities.BENCHMARKS19.A.Ka Engage in active play using fine and gross motor skills.19.A.Kb Move with balance and control.19.A.Kc Use strength and control to effectively accomplish tasks. 19.A.Kd Use eye-hand coordination to perform tasks.("Illinois early learning," 2013). Materials: A Video of the Cha Cha Slide projected through a smartboard, and Space!Activity: Before beginning this activity, the teacher should master the dance so that she can instruct the children on what each of the directions mean. Instruction should take place before the first time this activity is used. After the first time, students should be assisted as the activity is taking place when needed. Begin by having children help to move tables to the edge of the room, giving space for the each student to have about a two foot space around them in all directions.1. Start the video and follow instructions.2. The teacher should lead the dance the first few times the activity is used, standing in front of the room and doing the steps, and calling out to students that aren’t following so that she can show them.3. After the first few times this activity is used by the class, the teacher can walk among the students and help individuals as needed.Assessment: There is no real assessment for this activity. Children can be observed to see if they improve throughout the year, however this activity is more about fun and practicing physical movements. Children that do not seem to get better at the dance over time can be paired up with a student that is good at the dance to try and improve performance.This activity would be great for indoor recess or for a reward, since the students generally enjoy the dance and end up in a fit of giggles half of the time.
Kindergarten ActivityPhysical Activity - Ages 5 - 6Title of Activity: Move Your Feet!Topic or Main Idea: Coordination, memory, and listening skills (Physical Development) Objectives: Children should be able to identify what characteristics apply to them and move quickly, without falling, to another hula hoop.Standards Used: Illinois Early Learning Standards, State Goal 19: Acquire movement skills and understand concepts needed to engage in health-enhancing physical activity.Learning Standard A: Demonstrate physical competency in individual and team sports, creative movement, and leisure and work-related activities.BENCHMARKS19.A.Ka Engage in active play using fine and gross motor skills.19.A.Kb Move with balance and control.19.A.Kc Use strength and control to effectively accomplish tasks("Illinois early learning," 2013).Materials: Hula Hoops (quantity needed is one less than the number of students playing) and plenty of Space!Activity: This is a spin on the classic game of musical chairs. Instead of chairs, hula hoops are used, and instead of music, the characteristics of the children, their interests, their clothing, etc. are used. Before starting this activity, children should understand the types of “commands” can be used. For instance: if you have brown hair, if you have blue eyes, if you are wearing a red shirt, if you like math, if you have a pet, etc.First, set up Hula Hoops in a large circle.2. Next, pick a child to start. This child will stand in the middle of the circle while the other children each pick a hula hoop to sit in. 3. The game starts with the child in the center saying, “If you have brown hair, Move Your Feet!”4. The children that the “command” applies to, along with the child in the center of the circle must get up and move to an unoccupied Hula Hoop and sit down. 5. The child that is left without a Hula Hoop moves to the center of the circle. She chooses a “command” and the game continues.(Agnello)Assessment: Once again, there is no formal assessment for this activity, although children should improve in their agility and speed throughout the year. Children should also start to get an idea about which “commands” would be better for them. For instance, if only one child is wearing a green shirt, they might use that command, assuring that they get a Hula Hoop.
Kindergarten ActivitySocial Activity - Ages 5 - 6Title of Activity: Shape Scavenger HuntTopic or Main Idea: Working Together to Identify Familiar Shapes (Social Development)Objectives: Children should work together to complete the scavenger sheets: identifying objects that are in the shapes of circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles.Standards Used: Illinois Early Learning Standards – Social/Emotional Development - State Goal 32: Use social-awareness and interpersonal skills to establish and maintain positive relationships - Learning Standard C Use communication and social skills to interact effectively with others. BENCHMARKS 32.C.Ka Identify ways to work and play well with others.32.C.Kb Demonstrate appropriate social and classroom behavior.Mathematics - State Goal 9: Use geometric methods to analyze, categorize and draw conclusions about points, lines, planes, and space. Learning Standard A: Demonstrate and apply geometric concepts involving points, lines, planes, and space. BENCHMARKS9.A.Ka Recognize geometric shapes and structures in the environment.9.A.Kb Identify and name basic shapes("Illinois early learning," 2013).Materials: Scavenger Sheets, Clipboards, PencilsActivity: Place Students in pairs or small groups. The groups should decide together who will be the recorder.1. Each group should be given a clipboard and a scavenger sheet. Together, the group should identify the shapes on the sheet and the recorder should write the names below each shape. The teacher should help students that need assistance.2. Next, take students outside, and tell them to identify objects that they see around them that are in the shapes of circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles. 3. Children, together, should identify 3 to 4 different objects to place under each shape on their scavenger sheet. The recorder should write the name of the item and draw a quick sketch of it under the correct shape. The teacher should assist children with spelling if they ask for help.4. After Each group has finished their sheet (or time is up), The class should return inside and share the items that they found. 5. The group that has the largest number of items not identified by another group should be rewarded in whatever way the teacher sees appropriate.(Danyali, 2013)Assessment: Children might have a hard time learning to work together, especially the recorder, who must listen to everyone and record information. The other children need to learn to wait for the recorder to be finished before telling him their idea. Assessment in this activity can be made informally be teacher observation: which students worked cooperatively, and which had trouble? Formal Assessment can be accomplished by looking at each group’s scavenger sheet to determine if they were able to complete the activity and if their identifications were correct.
Kindergarten ActivitySocial Activity - Ages 5 - 6Title of Activity: SING-O!Topic or Main Idea: Social Development, Music, and CreativityObjectives: Students should be able to sing the second line of each song on the list.Standards Used: Illinois Early Learning Standards - Social/Emotional DevelopmentState Goal 31: Develop self-awareness and self-management skills to achieve school and life success. Learning Standard A: Identify and manage one’s emotions and behavior.BENCHMARKS31.A.Kc Demonstrate control of impulsive behaviorState Goal 32: Use social-awareness and interpersonal skills to establish and maintain positive relationships. Learning Standard C: Use communication and social skills to interact effectively with others. BENCHMARKS 32.C.Ka Identify ways to work and play well with others.32.C.Kb Demonstrate appropriate social and classroom behavior ("Illinois early learning," 2013).Materials: Song List, paper, colored pencils, markers, plastic bingo chips, 6 index cards (cut in half), stickable Velcro tabsActivity: Before beginning this activity, the teacher must create:Enough 3 x 3 grids for all of the students (With SING-O! written on the top). Grids should be made on some sort of thick material, like posterboard or even cardboard, so that the grids will last to be used over and over. Each section of each grid should have a piece of velcro (both sides) stuck to it. Pieces of paper should be pre-cut to fit into each of the 9 sections on the 3 x 3 grid (enough for each student to have 12, plus extras for mistakes).The Halved index cards must have the first line of each song written on one side of each card (12 total).1. First, students must create their SING-O! pieces. Each student should receive a premade 3 x 3 Grid, 12 pre-cut sections of paper, and three pieces of stickablevelcro. They should write their names on the back of the grids for later use.2. Each student must create 12 pieces (on each of the 12 pieces of small paper pre-cut to fit the grid) from each of the 12 songs that the teacher lists on an overhead, smart board, or whiteboard. Students should be instructed to create a picture that reminds them of the song. For instance, twinkle twinkle little star could be a star, and itsy bitsy spider could be a spider. After each student has finished creating their pieces, each piece should have one side of the stickable Velcro on the back. (9 are already on the grid) There will be three half pieces left over that can be discarded. Names should also go on the back of each piece. (You could stop here and have this be part 1 of the activity)3. To play SING-O!, students select which songs they want on their board. They use the Velcro on their boards and pieces to attach pieces to the board in the order they want. They will only be able to use 9 per game.4. Next, one child picks a card and the teacher reads the first line of the song. The student must then sing the second line of the song. For instance, If the student picked a card that said “Mary had a little lamb, little lamb, little lamb”, the student would then have to sing, “Mary had a little lamb, her fleece was white as snow”. If the student is able to sing the song line correctly and has the song on her board, she can mark it with a plastic chip. If a child is not able to sing the second line of the song, his classmates may help him, but he will not be allowed to put a plastic piece on his board. 5. This continues, rotating around the room with all students, until someone gets three in a row and shouts SING-O! A prize should be awarded to the winner of SING-O!Assessment: Assessment is done based on the students’ creation of their pieces and their willingness and ability to sing the second line of all twelve songs.
Children develop in many ways. Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Development all go hand in hand and often overlap in activities designed for young children. The kindergarten design here, along with the activities created, aim to enhance and maximize development in kindergarterners.
Bush, M. National Conference of State Legislatures, Education Commission of the States. (2010). Compulsory school age requirements. Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures website: http://www.ncsl.org/documents/educ/ECSCompulsoryAge.pdfChild on Computer [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-2945_42542_42543_42546_42551-151025--,00.html Children in Class [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://mychildmontessori.shopsinbangalore.com/client.php?page=inde&xshopid=mychildmontessori&domain=mychildmontessori Danyali, A. (2013, July 3). Take a scavenger hunt for shapes!. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/activity/article/shapescavenger_kindergarten/ DJ Steve. (Performer). (2011, July 24). How to Do the Cha Cha Slide [Web Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gveJ_PMdPlY Dkapp12. (Photographer). (2007, May 08). Small red-haired girl bouncing ball in her driveway [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.stockphotos.ro/bouncing-ball-image2387145.html Dreamstime. (Photographer). (2010, August 10). Kindergarten boy playing blocks [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/8475-kindergarten- whiz-kids-earn-adults.html ePals global community. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.epals.com/ Gardner's multiple intelligences. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newISS_85.htm Happy Boy[Clip Art]. Retrieved from Microsoft Office 2010Illinois State Board of Education, Division of Early Childhood Education. (2013). Illinois early learning standards: Kindergarten. Retrieved from Illinois State Board of Education website: http://www.isbe.state.il.us/earlychi/pdf/iel_standards.pdfIllinois State University. (2011). lL early learning standards, preschool - revised: alignment to other standards. Retrieved from http://leadershiplinc.illinoisstate.edu/LINC-principal/documents/ELS_Crosswalk.docxIndex Card [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.clipartsfree.net/clipart/1935-index-card-clipart.html Kaitlyn. (Artist). (2004, October 18). http://www.show.me.uk/site/show/STO489.html [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.show.me.uk/site/show/STO489.html Kauerz, K. (2005a). State kindergarten policies. Young Children, 60(2), Retrieved from Kauerz, K. (2005, March). State kindergarten policies. Retrieved from http://journal.naeyc.org/btj/200503/01Kauerz.pdfKauerz, K. (Designer). (2005b, March ). States Mandating Kindergarten [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://journal.naeyc.org/btj/200503/01Kauerz.pdf Kindergarteners playing [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.thinkfun.com/smartplayblog/?p=893 Kneas, K. M., & Perry, B. D. (2013). Using technology in the early childhood classroom. Retrieved from http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/bruceperry/using_technology.htm Mahoney, L. (2011, April 15). Sing-o: Play a bingo game with your favorite songs!. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/activity/article/SING-O/ Michaud, S. (Photographer). (2009, Dececmber 10). Big jump [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://whitehorsestar.com/archive/story/special-olympics-yukon-celebrates-first-active-start-program/ Microsoft Corporation. (2010) PowerPoint Clipart. Ormrod, J. (2011). Educational psychology, developing learners. (7th ed. ed.). Boston: Pearson College Div.Pang, T. (2009, October 22). Characteristic list & definitions. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/21422849/Characteristic-List-Definitions Paulson, C. M. (2007, February 08). Kindergarten entrance age requirement varies by state, with inconclusive results. Retrieved from http://voices.yahoo.com/kindergarten-entrance-age-requirement-varies-state-189834.html Preschool Children [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.childrensgarden.ae/ Reading Material [Clip Art]. Retrieved from Microsoft Office 2010Rumplestatskin. (Designer). (2013, April 02). Kids around world [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.macrobusiness.com.au/2013/04/when-culture-is-the-best-explanation/ Scott Curwood, J. (n.d.). What happened to kindergarten?. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/what-happened-kindergarten Stanbury, K. (2011). Understanding physical development in preschoolers. Retrieved from http://www.getreadytoread.org/early- learning-childhood-basics/early-childhood/understanding-physical-development-in-preschoolers Teacher with students [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.thecornernews.com/blogs/news_to_me/article_42de8f2d-162c-55ae-baec- 9c1277a95228.html?mode=image&photo=0 THExA2KxPROBLEM. (Producer). (2012, November 04). Cha-Cha Slide Music Video(Easy Step By Step) [Web Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbnYWpa6hKc The Savannah College of Art and Design. (Producer). Gardner's Multiple Intelligences [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://educ732.courseblock.com/module04/topic-4-2-gardner’s-multiple-intelligences-theory/ Virginia Living Museum. (Photographer). Children Outside [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.thevlm.org/Forkids.aspx Wall, B. (Designer). (2012, February 22). Not sharing [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://thrivingcouples.com/2012/02/22/teaching-your- child-to-share/ WGBH Educational Foundation. (n.d.). Courage cards. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/parents/arthur/activities/acts/courage_cards.html?cat=development
Kindergarten design presentation
July 7, 2013
EDU/305 Child Development
University of Phoenix
Kindergarten in the U.S.
(“Children studying,” 2013)
• Kindergarten is not required in most states
• 8 states, The District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin
Islands require school enrollment by the age of five
• 40 states and American Samoa require school attendance by the
age of six or seven
• 48 states require a student to be 5 years old by January 1st (or
sooner) of the school year
• Most students can legally start formal education in 1st grade
(Bush, 2010; Paulson, 2007)
Illinois Early Learning
State Goal 1: Read with
("Illinois early learning," 2013).
The Role of Play in
Social Development Physical Development
Emotional DevelopmentMoral Development
A B C
1 2 3
Technology In the Classoom
“Child on computer,”
• Interactive activities are best for young
children. (Kneas & Perry, 2013, para. 7).
• Passive activities do not engage children.
• Various websites are perfect for
• Helps a teacher to monitor progress, helps
students move at their own pace
“ePals kids,” 2013
• Tools such as iPads can be used for positive
• ePals.com combines social development
with cultural diversity
• Ideas about intelligence
vary from culture to
• Educators must
understand this and do
• Preconceived notions
need to be put aside
• Parents affect student
• Teachers and schools
can make a difference
• Different is good
("Gardner's multiple intelligences," )
(The Savannah College of Art and Design)
Cognitive Development Activity #1
End of Class Read Aloud
“Teacher reading,” 1998
• What is a title page?
• What does an author do? Where can you
find the author’s name?
• What does an illustrator do? Where can
you find the illustrator’s name?
• What is going to happen next? Why?
• Can you remember the story?
*This activity can apply to students who have a Linguistic intelligence
Secret MailCognitive Development Activity #2
“Red Mailbox,”, 2011
Benchmark 4.A.ECb: Show understanding by asking
and answering relevant questions or adding
comments relevant to the topic
Benchmark 12.C.ECa: Identify, describe and compare
the physical properties of objects
What is in the Mailbox?
“Raising hands,” 2011
*This activity can apply to students who have a Logical-mathematical intelligence
About MeEmotional Development Activity #1
*This activity can apply to students who have a Interpersonal or Intrapersonal intelligence
Emotional Development Activity #2
(WGBH Educational Foundation)
*This activity can apply to students who have a Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, or Spacial intelligence
A funny joke
(Microsoft Corporation, 2010)
(Microsoft Corporation, 2010)
(Microsoft Corporation, 2010)
(“Index Card,”; Kaitlyn, 2004)
Cha-Cha SlidePhysical Development Activity #1
*This activity can apply to students who have a Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
Video for students
How-To for Teachers
(DJ Steve, 2011)
Move Your Feet!Physical Development Activity #2
*This activity can apply to students who have a Bodily-kinesthetic or Linguistic intelligence
“If you have brown hair…”
“If you have blue eyes…”
“If you are wearing a red shirt…”
“If you like math…”
“If you have a pet…”
Shape Scavenger Hunt
Social Development Activity #1
*This activity can apply to students who have a Naturalist and Spatial intelligences
(Virginia Living Museum)
(“Children in class,”)
Social Development Activity #2
*This activity can apply to students who have a Musical intelligence
Suggested Song List
Old MacDonald Had a Farm
The Wheels on the Bus
The Itsy Bitsy Spider
Twinkle Twinkle Little Star
The Muffin Man
I’m a Little Teapot
Mary Had a Little Lamb
Three Blind Mice
Row Row Row Your Boat
The Farmer in the Dell
(Microsoft Corporation, 2010)
Mary Had a
“Mary Had a little Lamb,
her fleece was white as snow.”
• Physical Development: Gross and Fine Motor Skills
• Emotional Development: Self-awareness and self-image
• Social: Positive behavior with others
• Cognitive: Critical thinking and problem solving
Areas of Development
go hand in hand and often overlap
(1998, May 22). Teacher reading [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/98873.stm
(2009, April 10). Bean bag toss [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://innerchildfun.com/2009/04/5-friday-bean-bag-toss.html
(2011, February 03). Red Mailbox [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.momendeavors.com/2011/02/family-love-letters-in-a-valentines-
(2011, January 23). Raising hands [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://paulshampine.wordpress.com/tag/franz-kline/
(2012, August 08). Chalkboard [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://obsoproject.wordpress.com/2012/08/08/day-185-chalkboard/
(2013). ePals Kids [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.corp.epals.com/about-us.php
(2013, April 30). Children studying [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://asumag.com/bonus-content/all-day-study
ABCmouse logo [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.abcmouse.com/
Agnello, E. (n.d.). Move your feet. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info_7916855_physical-activity-games-kindergarten.html
Bannykh, A. (Artist). Happy school children [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from
Berk, L. E. (2012). Infants, children, and adolescents. (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
Burgess, R. (Artist). (2012, September 24). A Blank Piece of Paper [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from
Please See Notes Section for additional References