Human Exceptionality Chapter 3

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(c) Cengage Learning 2010

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Human Exceptionality Chapter 3

  1. 1. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Focus 1Define inclusive education.Focus 2Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.Focus 3Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.Focus 4Why is it so important to provide early intervention services as soon as possible to young children at risk? ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Focus 5Identify the components of the individualized family service plan (IFSP).Focus 6Identify evidence-based instructional approaches for preschool-age children with disabilities.Focus 7Describe the roles of special education and general education teachers in an inclusive classroom setting
  4. 4. Focus 8Why are multilevel instruction, universal design for learning, direct instruction, assistive technology, and curriculum-based assessment/measurement considered evidence-based practice in an inclusive classroom?
  5. 5.  Third grade student struggling in reading and language IEP Process › Pre-referral › Evaluation › Determination of Eligibility Parents as partners in the multidisciplinary IEP team ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6.  What is inclusive education? › Inclusion can also be defined by the extent of the student’s access to, and participation in, the general education setting. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7.  Full inclusion is an approach in which all support services are delivered to the student within the regular classroom setting. Partial inclusion is an approach in which most support services are delivered to the student within the regular classroom setting. However, when appropriate, the student may be “pulled out” and placed in another instructional setting. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8.  Diversity, Acceptance, Belonging › An effective inclusive school promotes acceptance and belonging within a diverse culture. Formal and Natural Supports › Within an effective inclusive school, students must have access to both formal supports (those provides by the school system) and natural supports (including family, friends, and classmates). ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9.  Age Appropriate Classrooms in Neighborhood Schools › Effective inclusive schools provide services and support to students with disabilities in age-appropriate classrooms within a neighborhood school. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10.  Access to the General Curriculum › Access to the general curriculum for students with disabilities is a critical provision of IDEA. Multidisciplinary Schoolwide Instructional Support › Effective inclusive schools are characterized by schoolwide support systems that use both general and special education resources in combination to benefit all students in the school. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11.  Collaboration is defined as professionals, parents, and students working together to achieve the mutual goal of delivering an effective educational program designed to meet individual needs. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12.  In inclusive schools, effective collaboration has several key characteristics: › Parents as Valued Partners › Sharing the Responsibility  Multidisciplinary Schoolwide Assistance Teams —To meet the challenges of individual diversity, schools have developed support networks that facilitate collaboration across professions. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. › Sharing the Responsibility (continued)  Working Together as a Professional and Parent Team— The diverse needs of students with severe disabilities require that students have access to many different education and related service specialists who work together in delivering instruction and providing adequate resources through transdisciplinary teaming. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14.  In inclusive schools, effective collaboration has several key characteristics: › Peer Support and Cooperative Learning  Peer supports may serve as powerful natural supports for students with disabilities in both social and academic areas and may range from simple opportunities to interact to highly- structured peer-mediated instruction. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15.  Early intervention services and supports in an environment that is free of traditional categorical labels should be provided as early as possible to students who are at risk. Early intervention can abate the overall impact of disabilities as well as counteract the negative effects of delayed intervention. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16.  Bringing about Change for Young Children with Disabilities › For the better part of the twentieth century, comprehensive educational and social services for young children with disabilities were nonexistent or sporadic. Often the only option was institutionalization. › Before the passage of the Handicapped Children’s Early Education Program (HCEEP) in 1968, national support for the development and implementation of services for young children with disabilities was largely absent. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17.  Bringing about Change for Young Children with Disabilities (continued) › The documented success of HCEEP culminated in the passage of Public Law 99–457 in 1986, an amendment to the Education of the Handicapped Act (now IDEA), which opened a new era of services for young children with disabilities. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18.  Early Intervention Under Part C of IDEA › Early intervention entails comprehensive services and supports, including education, health care, and social services, for children from birth to three years of age. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19.  IDEA defines eligible infants and toddlers for one of two reasons: › There is a developmental delay in one or more of the areas of cognitive development, physical development, communication, social or emotional development, and adaptive development. › There is a diagnosis of a physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in a developmental delay. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20.  An individualized family service plan (IFSP) must be developed for each child to ensure that specific needs are addressed. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21.  Evidence-Based Early Intervention › In order for support models to be effective, services should focus on individualization, intensive instruction, and comprehensive service delivery. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22.  Preschool Services: › Referral  A child find system is set up in each state to locate preschool age children who are at risk and make referrals to the LEA.  Referrals may come from the parent, physician, health or social service agencies, or the child’s day care or preschool teacher.  Referrals are based on the child’s perceived developmental delays. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23.  Preschool Services: › Multidisciplinary Assessment  A preschool-aged child is eligible if he or she meets both of the following requirements:  There is a developmental delay in one or more of the areas of cognitive development, physical development, communication, social or emotional development, and adaptive development.  As a result of the delays, the child needs special education and related services. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24.  Preschool Services: › Developing an IEP for the Preschool-Aged Child  An individualized education plan (IEP) must be developed for each eligible child using specialists from a variety of disciplines.  Depending on needs, programs may focus on developing skills in communication, social and emotional learning, physical well-being, self care, and coping.  The skills chosen should be based on a functional assessment of the child and the setting where he or she spends time that determines the child’s skills, the characteristics of the setting, and the family’s needs, resources, expectations, and aspirations. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25.  Evidence-Based Practices in Preschool Education › Developmentally Appropriate Practice › Age-Appropriate Placement › Teaching Functional Skills › Inclusive Preschool Classrooms Transition from Preschool to Elementary School ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26.  The Roles of the Special Education Teacher › Collaborator › Consultant › Coordinator The General Education Teacher - IDEA requires that general educators be members of IEP teams. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27.  Evidence-Based Practices in Inclusive Elementary School Programs › Multilevel (Differentiated) Instruction › Universal Design for Learning › Direct Instruction › Assistive Technology › Curriculum-Based Assessment/Measurement ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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