Personality disorders


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Abnormal Psychology- Personality Disorders: Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal, Dependent, Obsessive-compulsive and Avoidant Personality Disorders.

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Personality disorders

  1. 1. PERSONALITY DISORDERS Abnormal Psychology
  2. 2. Defining Abnormality  Distress  Impairment  Risk to Self or to Other People  Socially & Culturally Unacceptable Behaviour
  3. 3. Distress  Experience of emotional or physical pain Impairment  Reduction of a person’s ability to function at an optimal or even average level
  4. 4. Risk to Self or Other People  Threat to the well-being of the person Socially and Culturally Unacceptable Behaviour  Deviation from expected norms in a given culture
  5. 5. Causes of Abnormality Biological Psychological Sociocultural Discrimination toward one’s social group
  6. 6. Biological Cause of Abnormality  Genetic Inheritance  Medical Conditions  Brain Damage  Exposure to environmental stimuli
  7. 7. Psychological Cause of Abnormality  Traumatic Life Experiences  Learned Associations  Distorted Perceptions  Faulty ways of Thinking
  8. 8. Sociocultural Cause of Abnormality  Disturbances in intimate relationships  Problems in extended relationships  Political or social unrest
  9. 9. PERSONALITY DISORDERS Involves a long-lasting maladaptive pattern of inner experience and behaviour, dating back to adolescence or young adulthood, that is manifested in at least two of the following areas: (1)Cognition, (2) Affectivity, (3) Interpersonal Functioning and (4) Impulse Control.
  10. 10. This inflexible pattern is evident in various personal and social situations and causes distress or impairment. The pattern is stable and long duration, with an onset that can be traced back to adolescence or early adulthood.
  11. 11. Diagnostic Features of Personality Disorder 1. Cognition- ways of perceiving self, other people and events 2. Affectivity- range, intensity and appropriateness of emotional expression 3. Interpersonal Functioning 4. Impulse Control
  12. 12. Personality Disorders  Antisocial Personality Disorder  Borderline Personality Disorder  Histrionic Personality Disorder  Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  13. 13.  Paranoid Personality Disorder  Schizoid Personality Disorder  Schizotypal Personality Disorder  Avoidant Personality Disorder  Dependent Personality Disorder  Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder
  14. 14. Antisocial Personality Disorder Diagnostic Feature This diagnosis is assigned to adults, who are as children showed evidence of conduct disorder and who , from the age of 15, have shown a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, as disregard for and violation of the rights of others, as indicated by three or more of the following:
  15. 15. Repeated engagement in behaviours that are grounds for arrest Deceitfulness, such a lying, using false identities or conning others for personal profit or pleasure Impulsivity, or failure to plan ahead Irritability & aggressiveness, such as repeated fights or assaults
  16. 16. Reckless disregard for the safety of self & others Consistent irresponsibility, such as repeated failure to keep a job or honor financial obligations Lack of remorse, such as being indifferent to or rationalizing one’s hurtful or dishonest behavior
  18. 18. Borderline Personality Disorder Diagnostic Feature This diagnosis is assigned to people who show recurrent impulsivity and a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self- image and affects, as indicated by five or more of the following:
  19. 19. Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by changes between idealizing and devaluing others Identity disturbances- unstable self-image or sense of self
  20. 20. Impulsivity in at least 2 areas, such as spending, sex, substance abuse and reckless driving Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures or threats of self mutilating behavior Emotional instability, such as intense episodes of sadness, irritability or anxiety, usually lasting a few hours and sometimes several days
  21. 21. Chronic feeling of emptiness Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger, such as frequent displays of temper, constant anger or recurrent physical fights Occasional stress-related paranoid thinking or dissociative symptoms
  22. 22. Histrionic Personality Disorder Diagnostic Feature This diagnosis is given to people who show a pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, as indicated by five or more of the following:
  23. 23.  Discomfort when not the center of attention  Interactions characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior  Rapid shifts and shallow expression of emotions  Used of physical appearance to draw attention  Speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail
  24. 24.  Self-dramatization , theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion  High suggestibility  Misinterpretation of relationships as being more intimate than they are
  25. 25. Narcissistic Personality Disorder Diagnostic Feature This diagnosis applies to people who show a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration and lack of empathy, as evidence by 5 or more of the following:
  26. 26. ∞ Grandiose sense of self importance ∞ Preoccupation with fantasies o success, power, brilliance, beauty or ideal love ∞ Belief that they are so “special” that they should associate only with other special people, who can understand then ∞ Need for excessive admiration
  27. 27. ∞ Sense of entitlement ∞ Exploitive interpersonal style ∞ Lack of empathy ∞ Envy of others or belief that others are envious ∞ Arrogant behaviors and attitudes
  28. 28. Paranoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Feature People with this personality disorder show pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others whose motives they interpret as malevolent, as indicated by four or more of the following:
  29. 29.  Unjustified suspicion that others are exploiting, harming of deceiving them  Preoccupation with unjustified doubts about others’ loyalty and trustworthiness  Reluctance to confide in others, for fear the information will be used against them  Tendency to read hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into harmless remarks or events
  30. 30.  Tendency to bear grudges  Perception of personal attacks that are not apparent to others and tendency to respond with angry counterattacks  Recurrent unjustified suspicions about the faithfulness of spouse or sexual partner
  31. 31. Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Features This diagnosis applies to people who show a pervasive pattern of detachment from relationships and a restricted emotional range, as indicated by 4 or more of the following:
  32. 32.  Lack of desire for enjoyment of close relationships  Strong preference for solitary activities  Little or no interest in sexual experiences with another person  Lack of pleasure in few, if any activities  Lack of close friends or confidants, other than immediate relatives  Indifference to praise to criticism  Emotional coldness, detachment, or flat emotionally
  33. 33. Schizotypal Personality Disorder Diagnostic Behavior This diagnosis is given to people who show a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships and who experience cognitive or perceptual distortions and behavioral eccentricities as indicated by five or more of the following:
  34. 34.  Ideas of reference  Odd beliefs or magical thinking, which influences their behavior (magic, mind- reading)  Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions  Odd thinking and speech
  35. 35.  Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation  Inappropriate or constricted affect  Behavior or appearance that is odd or eccentric  Lack of close friends or confidants other than immediate relatives  Excessive social anxiety that tends to be associated with paranoid fears
  36. 36. Avoidant Personality Disorder Diagnostic Feature This diagnosis applies to people with a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, as indicated by four or more of the following:
  37. 37.  Avoidance of activities that involves significant interpersonal contact because of fears of criticism, disapproval or rejection  Unwillingness to get involved with others unless certain of being liked  Restraint within intimate relationships due to the fear of being shamed or ridiculed
  38. 38.  Preoccupation with being criticized or rejected in social situations  Inhibition in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy  Self-view as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others  Reluctance to take personal risks or new activities due to fear of being embarrassed
  39. 39. Dependent Personality Disorder Diagnostic Feature People with this disorder have a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of, which leads to their submissive, clinging behavior and fears of separation, as indicated by 5 or more of the following:
  40. 40.  Difficulty making everyday decisions without advice and reassurance  Need for others to assume responsibility for most major areas of life  Difficulty expressing disagreement with others due to fear of loss of support or approval  Difficulty initiating projects or tasks because of low self confidence in judgment or abilities
  41. 41.  Tendency to go to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support the point of volunteering to do the things that are unpleasant  Feelings of discomfort or helplessness when alone due to fear of being unable to care for themselves  Pursuit of another relationship as a source of care and support immediately following the end of a close relationship  Preoccupation with fears of being left to take care of themselves
  42. 42. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Diagnostic Feature This diagnosis applies to people with a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness and efficiency, as indicated by four or more of the following:
  43. 43. Ω Preoccupation with details, rules, order, organization, or schedules to such an extent that the major point of activity is lost Ω Perfectionism that interferes with task completion Ω Excessive devotion to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not due to economic necessity)
  44. 44. Ω Tendency to be over conscientiousness, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not due to culture or religion) Ω Inability to discard worn-out or worthless objects Ω Reluctance to delegate tasks to others unless they agree on exact way of doing things Ω Miserly spending style toward self and others Ω Rigidity and stubbornness
  45. 45. THANK YOU