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BASIC CONCEPTS OF CURRICULUM
Definition of the “CURRICULUM”.
• Curriculum is derived from the Latin word ‘currere’ which means “to run”. Based on the
definition, Pinar (1974) highlighted the term “to run” which for the term means to live an
experience. Indeed, for many students, the school curriculum is a race to be run, a series of
obstacles or hurdles to be passed.
• It is the “what” of teaching.
• It is considered as a dynamic process.
CURRICULUM MAY ACTUALLY BE DEFINED IN TWO WAYS:
PRESCRIPTIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE.
• Prescriptive definitions- provides with what “ought” to happen, and are more often than not take the
form of a plan, an intended program, or some kind of expert opinion about what needs to take place in
the course of study” (Ellis, 2004).
• Descriptive definition- they force thought about curriculum, “not merely in terms of how things ought
to be…but how things are in real classrooms” (Ellis, 2004). Another term that could be used to define
the descriptive curriculum is experience. The experienced curriculum provides “glimpses” of the
curriculum in action.
DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW OF THE CURRICULUM
1. Traditional Point of View – referred as the Essentialists’ View. According to the Traditionalist point of
• Curriculum is a body of subject matters prepared by the teachers for the students to learn. It is
synonymous to the tern “course of study” and “syllabus”
• Curriculum is viewed as a field of study which is made up of its foundations, domains of knowledge as
well as research theories and principles.
• Curriculum is viewed as written documents or a plan of action in accomplishing goals.
As viewed by many essentialists…
• According to Hutchins (1990), curriculum is a “permanent study” where the rule of grammar, reading,
rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized.
• Bestor (1956) mentioned that the mission of the school should be intellectual training/learning, hence
curriculum should focus on the fundamental intellectual disciplines of grammar, literature and writing.
It should also include mathematics, science, history and foreign language.
• “Discipline is the sole source of curriculum”. –Joseph Schwab (1984)
2. Progressive Points of View – for a progressivist, a listing of school, subjects, syllabi, course of study, and list of
courses or specific discipline do not make a curriculum. These can only be called curriculum if the written
materials are actualized by the learner. As viewed by progressivist:
• John Dewey (1999) defined curriculum as the total learning experiences of the individual.
• For Caswell & Campbell (2003), curriculum is all the experiences children have under the guidance of teachers.
• Smith, Stanley and Shore (1957) described curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in the
schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways thinking and acting.
• Marsh & Willis stated that a curriculum as all experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by
the teacher, and also learned by the students.
• Tanner D. & Tanner, L. (2007) mentioned that the learning experiences and intended outcomes formulated
through systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school for the
learner’s continuous and willful growth in persona-social competence; the cumulative tradition of organized
• Curriculum is a plan for learning. –Hilda Taba
• A course on study on a specific topic includes all the learning experiences of the students as planned and
directed by the school to attain its educational goals (Tyler) or for which the school assumes responsibilities
(Popham and Baker)
POINTS OF VIEW ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Curriculum is a dynamic process, can be inferred from the various definitions and concepts presented.
Development connotes changes which are systematic. An improvement for the better means any
alteration, modification or improvement of existing condition. To produce positive charge, development
should be purposeful, planned and progressive. This is how a curriculum supposed to evolve.
TWO MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT & CONCEPTS
1. Ralph Tyler Model: Tyler’s rationale four basic principles.
• What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
• What educational experiences can be provided that is likely to attain these purposes?
• How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
• How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not?
Tyler’s model shows that in curriculum development, the following consideration should be made:
• What re the purposes of the school?
• What educational experiences are related to the purposes?
• How was the experiences organized? And
• What is the result of the evaluation of the experiences?
2. Hilda Taba model: Grassroots approach
• She improved Tyler’s Rationale by making a linear model. She believed that teachers who teach or implement the
curriculum should participate in developing it? Her advocacy was commonly called the grassroots approach
THE FOLLOWING ARE THE SEVEN MAJOR STEPS WHICH SHE
PRESENTED WHERE TEACHER COULD HAVE A MAJOR INPUT:
• Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society
• Formulation of learning objectives
• Selection of learning content
• Organization of learning content
• Selection of learning experiences
• Organization of learning activities
• Determinations of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
Three Interacting Processes in Curriculum Development:
ALLAN GLATTHORN’S TYPES OF CURRICULUM OPERATING IN SCHOOLS
1. Recommended curriculum – is the curriculum that is proposed by individual scholars, professional associations, and reform commissions: it also
encompasses the curriculum requirements of policy-making group, such as federal and state governments. It is a curriculum that stresses “oughtness,”
identifying the skill and concepts that ought to be emphasized, according to the perception and value systems for the sources.
2. Written curriculum – it appears in school, district, division or country documents. The written curriculum seems intended primarily to ensure that
the educational goals of the system are being accomplished; it is curriculum of control.
3. Taught curriculum – it is the delivered curriculum, a curriculum that an observer would see in action as the teacher taught.
4. Supported curriculum – it is the curriculum as reflected in and shaped by the resources allocated to support or deliver the curriculum. It includes
materials resources that support and help in the implementation of the written curriculum such as textbook, computers, audio-visual materials,
laboratory equipment, playgrounds, zoos, and other facilities.
5. Assessed/tested curriculum – this refers to tested or evaluated curriculum. It is the set of learning that are assessed in teacher-made classroom
test, in district developed curriculum-referenced test, and in standardized test. Assessment tools like pencil-and-paper test, authentic instrument like
portfolio are being utilized.
6. Learned curriculum – the tern learned curriculum is used hereto denote all the changes in values, perceptions, and behavior that occur as a result
of school experiences. It usually includes what the student understands, learns, and retains from both the intentional curriculum and the hidden
curriculum. In short, it refers to the learning outcomes achieved by the students, these are indicated by the result of tests and changes in behavior
which can either be cognitive, affective, or psychomotor.
7. Hidden curriculum – the hidden curriculum, which is sometimes called the “unstudied curriculum” or the “implicit curriculum” might best be
define as those aspects of schooling, other than the intentional curriculum that seem to produce changes in student values; perceptions, and
behavior. Or in a more specific way, it is the unintended curriculum which is not deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influence outcomes.
It is made up of peer influence, social environment, physical condition, teacher-learner interaction, mood of the teacher and many other factors.
MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM
The curriculum in order to be effective should be based on the following foundation:
• Sociological and cultural
The curriculum needs to be securely established in sociological and cultural, philosophical, historical and
psychological bases for all-around development of the leaner.
SOCIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS
Society and culture relate to curriculum in the sense that they are part of the bases and sources of many curriculum matters and decisions.
• Whatever changes there are in them, education in general and curriculum in particular are affected.
• The societal changes/forces affect school, and hence, the curriculum: these forces include:
• Cultural tradition
• Moral values
• It should be based on research and able to address multi-cultural concerns, poverty and the adaption of technology
• May be a basis for curricular changes/improvement, upon which curriculum should be based
• The school influences society through its traditional, but important purpose, which is the development among learners of the following:
• Citizenship -teaching of cultural heritage
-desire to protect and improve society
-development of desirable values
• Intellectualism -essential to having an improved/developed national economy
• Vocational Preparation -developing group oriented
-abstraction skills among learners
Basic Philosophical System Fundamental idea(s) Curricular implications
Idealism (Plato) Importance of mind and spirit and of
developing them in the learner
Reality is in the ideas independent of sense
Subject matter/content focused on believing that this is essential to mental and oral development
Realism (Aristotle) Truth can be tested/proven
Knowledge is derived from sense experience
Curriculum is a subject-centered organized from simple to complex and stressing to mastery of fact and dev’t of
process and objective skills and focused to Science and Math
Pragmatism ( Dewey, Rousseau, W. James)
The world is world of change; man can know
anything within his experience
Belief in “learning by doing”
Provisions for direct experiences
Basis- problem of democratic society
human being are rational and their existence
remain the same throughout differing
Subject matters consist of perennial basic education of rational men: history, language, math, logic, science, arts.
Reality is a matter of individual existence
Focus on conscious awareness of choice
Curriculum stresses activity
Recognition of individual differences
Opportunities for making choice
There are certain ideas that men should know
for social stability
Curriculum focused on assimilation of prescribed basic matter
History, science math
Reconstructionism School are the chief means for building new
Curriculum should include subject that deal with social and cultural crises
•Philosophy gives direction to curriculum in terms of its goals and objectives;
•The schools underlying beliefs and values have impact on curriculum content and choice of appropriate instructional strategies and learning activities in
implementing the curriculum.
Philosophical beliefs that undergrid the curricula of schools:
HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Period Characteristics Curricular Focus
1. Pre-Spanish Practical training – satisfy basic needs and to transmit
social ideas, beliefs and traditions
Reading and writing-study of Koran
2. Spanish Learning of the Christian Doctrine Parochial Schools /Vernacular
3. American Public school system 3Rs
Hygiene and sanitation
4. Commonwealth Dev’t of moral character
Filipino as medium
Elementary (6 years) age 7
Double single sessions
Filipino subject introduced
5. Japanese Prosperity sphere educational objective Diffusion of elementary education
Promotion of vocational education
Termination of the use of English as medium of
Third Republic 1935.situation
1. New society National dev’t goals
High level profession
Bilingual Education Policy
Dev’t of moral character, self- discipline, scientific
Love of country
1. Fourth Republic Right of all citizen to quality education Teaching of values
Emphasis on the basic in the new elementary and
secondary schools curriculum
•It refers the educational focus prevalent during a particular period or event in Philippine history.
•The focus could be made basis or model curriculum development of recent years.
• Psychological Foundations
Essentials of psychology to education
• How do we learn (and think)?
• Why do students respond to teaching?
• And why do they respond differently?
• basis of understanding – John Dewey
• a “screen” – Ralp Tyler
• modes of thinking – Jerome burner
“Unifying elements of the learning process. It forms the basis for the methods, materials, and activity of
learning … serves . . . for many curriculum decision”
MAJOR THEORIES OF LEARNING
• behaviorism – stimulus and reinforces
• cognitivism – mental operation
• humanistic psychology – whole child ( social, psychology, and cognitive development)
• connectionism (Thorndike)
• laws of learning (learning connection)
• law of readiness, law of exercise, law of effect
• specific stimuli and specific response
• Tyler – generalized view of learning
• Bobbitt and Charters – specific habits to be acquired
• Taba – problem-solving and inquiry-discover
• Bruner – “learning how to learn
• Classical conditioning ( Pavlov )
• Stimuli association (bell and food)
• Key to learning is to condition the child in early years of life to train them what you want them to be
• Operant Conditioning ( skinner )
• Elicited responses – definite stimulus
• Emitted responses - unrelated identifiable stimulus
• Key to learning – operant behavior where the role of stimuli is less definite (emitted); reinforcement (positive and negative)
• Lead to acquisition of new operant leading to behavior modification
• Observational learning and modeling (bandura)
• People learn through observation and modeling
• Key to learning – through models, learner can learn how to perform at sophisticated levels of performance
• Hierarchical learning ( Gagne )
• The behavior are based on prerequisite conditions.
• 8 types of learning: signal learning, stimulus response, motor chains, verbal associations, multiple discrimination, concepts, rules, and
• Key to learning - cumulative process of learning: learning outcomes can be measured
• Behaviorism and curriculum
• Curriculum should be organized so students experience success in master the subject matter
• Behaviorist are very prescriptive and diagnostic in their approach
• Rely on step-by-step structured methods for learning
• Behaviorist in curriculum includes careful analyzing and sequencing of the learners’ needs and behaviors.
• Theories of Jean Piaget
• Describes cognitive development in terms of stages from birth to maturity;
• Cognitive Stages of Development
• Sensorimotor stage (0-2)
• Preoperational stage (2-7)
• Concrete stage (7-11)
• Formal operation (11-ownwards);
• Key to learning – assimilation (incorporation of new experience), accommodation (learning modification and adaptation) and equilibration (balance between previous and later learning)
• Tyler’s method:
1. Continuity – Vertical curriculum
2. Sequence – Spiral curriculum of which past experience builds upon the preceding one
3. Integration – Horizontal curriculum
• Taba: Curriculum strategies for productive learning (Based on assimilation, accommodation and equilibration)
• Bruner – acquisition, transformation and evaluation
• Kholberg – preconventional (no sense of right or wrong), conventional (concerned about what people think), postconventional (morality is based on what other people feel)
• Theory of Lev Vygotsky
• Zone of Proximal Development
• Cultural transmission and development
• Children could, as a result of their interaction with society, actually perform certain cognitive actions prior to arriving at developmental stage
• Learning precedes development
• Sociocultural development theory
• Key to learning
• Pedagogy creates learning process that lead to development
• Child is an active agent in his or her educational process
• Thinking and Learning Theories
• Gardner’s multiple intelligences.
• Learning styles: Myth
• Goleman’s emotional intelligence. – Emotion contain the power top affect action.
• Constructivism (Vygotsky)
• Individual as the active person in the process of thinking, learning and coming to know
• Learner is the key player
• Key to learning
• The learner constructs understanding from the inside, not from an external source.
• Learners must make knowledge personally relevant
• Individual must construct own knowledge – make meaning
Other Problem Solving and Thinking Theories
• Reflective thinking (Dewey)
• Critical thinking (Ennis, Lipman and Sternberg)
• Creative thinking (Fromm, Sternberg, Picasso, Dylan)
• Intuitive thinking (Bruner)
• Discover Learning (Phenix, Bruner, Taba)
Cognitivism and Curriculum
• Why use cognitivism in curriculum making?
• Cognitive approach constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting learning
• Rooted in the traditional of subject matter
• Educators been trained in cognitive approaches
• Schools are the place for cognitive learning
• Students should not afraid to ask, not afraid of being wrong, not afraid of not please teacher, and not afraid
if taking risk and playing with ideas.
• Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology
• Gestalt Theory
• Learning is explained in terms of “wholeness” of the problem
• Human beings do not respond to isolated stimuli bit an organization or pattern of stimuli.
• Key to learning:
• Learning is complex and abstract
• Learner analyzes the problem, discriminates between essential and nonessential data, and
• Learners will perceive something in relation to the whole. What/how they perceive it’s
related to their previous experiences.
• Self-Actualization Theory (Maslow)
• Classic theory of human needs
• A child whose basic needs are not met will not be interested in acquiring knowledge of the world
• Put importance in human emotions, based on love and trust
• Key to learning – produce a healthy and happy learner who can accomplish, grow and actualize his or her human self
• Nondirective and Therapeutic Learning (Rogers)
• Established counseling procedures and methods for facilitating learning
• Children’s perceptions, which are highly individualistic, influence in their learning behavior in class
• Key to learning – Curriculum concerns with process, not product; personal needs, not subject matter, psychological
meaning, not cognitive scores.
Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology and Curriculum
• Motivation and Achievement
• Self-esteem and self-concept must be recognized as essential factors
• Affective needs are more important than cognitive needs
• Support and nurture
• The concept of Freedom
• Freedoms permits learner to probe, explore and deepen understanding
• Enhance learning opportunities and alternatives
• In search Curriculum
• Learners draw on experiences, subject matter, and intellectual skills to attain full potential
• Affection is measured thorough testimonials
• Curriculum that enhance the self-actualizing and self-determining learning process
Domains that affect learning process
Components of the Curriculum
• Curriculum has an important role in an educational system. It is somehow a blueprint which leads the teacher and the learner to reach the desired
objectives. As a result, authorities have to design in such a way that it could lead the teacher and the learner meet the desired learning outcomes.
These four components of the curriculum are essential. These are interrelated to each other. Each of these has a connection to one another.
The four components of Curriculum are:
1. Curriculum Aims, Goals and Objectives
2. Curriculum Content or Subject Matter
3. Curriculum Experience
4. Curriculum Evaluation]
• Curriculum Aims, Goal and Objectives
• Tries to capture what goals are to be achieved, the vision, the philosophy, the mission statement and objectives
• It clearly defines the purpose and what the curriculum is to be acted upon and try what to derive at
• Education is purposeful
• It is concerned with outcomes that are expressed at several levels:
• AIMS- the most general
• GOALS- reflect the purpose with some outcomes in mind
• OBJECTIVES- reflect the most specific level of educational outcomes
CURRICULUM CONTENT OR SUBJECT MATTER
• Contains information to be learned in school
• An element or medium through which the objectives are accomplished
• A primordial concern of formal education is primarily to transmit organized knowledge in distilled form to a new generation of
• The traditional sources of what is taught and learned in school is precisely the foundation of knowledge, therefore, the sciences
and humanities provide the basis of selecting the content of school learning
• In organizing the learning contents, balance, articulation, sequence, integration, and continuity form a sound content
• Content must take account of the environment in which the course will be used, the needs of the learner, and principles of
teaching and learning. (Nation, 1996)
• Contents of the Curriculum should consider the following:
• Curriculum experience together with the different instructional strategies and methods are the core of the curriculum.
• These instructional strategies and methods will put into action the goals and use of the content in order to produce an
• These would convert the written curriculum to instruction.
• Mastery is the function of the teacher direction and student activity with the teacher supervision
• Curriculum experienced simply means the extension of the normal activities of daily life into direct instructional
situations. (Johnson, 1938)
• Curriculum encompasses the entire scope of formative deed and experience occurring in and out of school, and not
only experiences occurring in school; experiences that are unplanned and undirected, and experiences intentionally
directed for the purposeful formation of adult members of society. (Bobbit, 1918)
• Quality and nature of the learning experience in developing attributes and capabilities and in achieving active
engagement, motivation and depth of learning.
• The totality of experiences which are planned for children and young people, including the ethos and life of the school
and interdisciplinary studies as well as learning within curriculum areas and subjects.
• An element of an effective curriculum
• Identifies the quality, effectiveness of the program, process and product of the curriculum
• Tyler (1949) defines assessment as – essentially the process of determining to what extent of educational objectives are
actually being realized by the program of curriculum and instruction
• Tyler suggested 4 fundamental questions in connection with any curriculum:
1. What educational purposes should the school seek to obtain?
2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
4. How can we determine whether these purposes are?
• Assessment sets to ascertain students’ achievement and to identify the quality and quantity of the curriculum/syllabus.
• It is concerned with deciding on the value or the purpose of a learning process and the effectiveness with which it is being
• Concern with preparing adequate and efficient measuring devices for evaluating purposes.
• Evaluation is the process in which a decision is made on how well the students have done to whatever they were trying to do
• The components of a curriculum are distinct but interrelated to each other
• These four components should be always present in a curriculum
• These are the essential items to have an effective curriculum
• In a Curriculum, evaluation is important so one could assess whether the objectives and aims have been meet or if not,
he could employ another strategy which will easily work out.
• Curriculum experience could not be effective if the content is not clearly defined.
• The aims, goals and directions serve as the anchor of the learning journey, the content or subject matter serves as the
meat of the educational journey
• Curriculum experience serves as the hands-on exposure to the real spectrum of learning
• The curriculum evaluation serves as the barometer as to how far had the learners understood on the educational
THE PHILIPPINE CURRICULUM
Education Act of 1982 or Bats Pambansa Blg. 232, under Article II The Educational Systems, states under:
• Sec. 21. Objectives of Elementary Education.
1. To provide knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes, and values essential to personal development and necessary for
living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu;
2. To provide learning experiences which increase the child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in and just
demands of society and to prepare him for constructive and effective involvement;
3. To promote and intensify the child’s knowledge of, identification with, and love for the nation and the people to which
4. To promote work experiences which develop the child’s orientation to the world of work and creativity and prepare himself
to engage in honest and gainful work.
Sec. 22. Objectives of Secondary Education.
1. To continue to promote the objectives of elementary education; and
2. To discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of the students so as to equip him with skills for
productive endeavor and/or prepare him for tertiary schooling.
Sec. 23. Objective to Tertiary Education.
1. To provide a general education program that will promote national identify, cultural consciousness, moral
integrity and spiritual vigor;
2. To train the nation’s manpower in the skills required for national development;
3. To develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation; and
4. To advance knowledge through research work and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life
and responding effectively to changing societal needs and conditions.
CURRICULUM IN THE PHILIPPINES
Curriculum Development in the Philippines
• Touched on the religion, economic, political, and social influences and events that took place in the country
• Colonial rules in the Philippines tailored the curriculum to serve colonial goals and objectives.
The Areas of Concern
• Cultural Values
• Knowledge of Learner
• Knowledge of Teaching-Learning Theories and Principles
• Body of Knowledge
• Means of livelihood
• Political behavior
• Community norms
• Value system
Knowledge of the Learner
• Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED) – Content Based (not on the learner and learning process)
• The Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) and Secondary Educational Development Program (SEDP) – addresses the learner and learning process.
DETERMINANTS OF LEARNING IN THE PHILIPPINES
• Educational Development Project Implementing Task Force (EDPITAF) – revealed that community and
home variables have greater impact on learning than school factors.
• Use of electricity
• Parental education
• Parents perception of academic abilities and interests of the children
• Parent’s attitude
• Geography (Region)
• School type
• Socio economic status of the family
KNOWLEDGE OF TEACHING-LEARNING PRINCIPLE
• Cognitive development psychology
• Cognitive field psychology
• The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) and New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) –
demonstrate ample evidence of the inclusion of behaviorist psychological principles through the use of
behavioral objectives, drills, practices and homework’s reinforces learning.
• The Pre-Spanish Curriculum
• The Pre-Spanish Devised Curriculum
• American Devised Curriculum
• Commonwealth Curriculum
• The Japanese Curriculum
• Liberation Period Curriculum
• Philippine Republic Curriculum
• Philippine Basic Education Curriculum
K TO 12 MODEL AS DEVELOPED BY DEPED
Phases of Implementation
• Universal Kindergarten will be offered starting SY 2011-2012
• DepEd will begin unclogging the basic education curriculum in SY 2012-2013
• The enhanced 12 year curriculum will be implemented starting with incoming Grade 1 students of SY
• Incoming freshmen of SY 2012-2013 will be first beneficiary of a free Senior High School education that
will be made available by DepEd in public schools beginning SY 2016-2017
• Electives to be offered in Senior HS (arts, music, tech-vocational)
SALIENT FEATURES OF THE K-12 CURRICULUM
Strengthening Early Childhood Education (Universal Kindergarten)
• Every Filipino child now has access to early childhood education through Universal Kindergarten. At 5 years old, children
start schooling and are given the means to slowly adjust to formal education.
• Research shows that children who underwent Kindergarten have better completion rates than those who did not.
Children who complete a standards-based Kindergarten program are better prepared, for primary education.
• Education for children in the early years lays the foundation for lifelong learning and for the total development of a child.
• In Kindergarten, students learn the alphabet, numbers, shapes, and colors through games, songs, and dances, in their
MAKING THE CURRICULUM RELEVANT TO LEARNERS
(CONTEXTUALIZATION AND ENHANCEMENT)
• Examples, activities, songs, poems, stories, and illustrations are based on local culture, history, and
reality. This makes the lessons relevant to the learners and easy to understand.
• Students acquire in-depth knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes through continuity and consistency
across all levels and subjects.
• Discussions on issues such as Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and
Information & Communication Technology (ICT) are included in the enhanced curriculum.
BUILDING PROFICIENCY THROUGH LANGUAGE (MOTHER
TONGUE-BASED ,MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION)
• Students are able to learn best through their first language, their Mother Tongue (MT).
• Twelve (12) MT languages have been introduced for SY 2012-2013: Bahasa Sug, Bikol, Cebuano, Chabacano,
Hiligaynon, Iloko, Kapampangan, Maguindanaoan, Meranao, Pangasinense, Tagalog, and Waray. Other local languages
will be added in succeeding school years.
• After Grade 1, every student can read in his or her Mother Tongue. Learning in Mother Tongue also serves as the
foundation for students to learn Filipino and English easily.
• Aside from the Mother Tongue, English and Filipino are taught as subjects starting Grade 1, with a focus on oral
fluency. From Grades 4 to 6, English and Filipino are gradually introduced as languages of instruction. Both will
become primary languages of instruction in Junior High School (JHS) and Senior High School (SHS).
• Ensuring Integrated and Seamless Learning (Spiral Progression)
• Subjects are taught from the simplest concepts to more complicated concepts through grade levels
in spiral progression.
• As early as elementary, students gain knowledge in areas such as Biology, Geometry, Earth Science,
Chemistry, and Algebra. This ensures a mastery of knowledge and skills after each level.
• Gearing Up for the Future (Senior High School)
• Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education; students may choose a
specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school capacity.
• The choice of career track will define the content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and
12. SHS subjects fall under either the Core Curriculum or specific Tracks.
• There are seven Learning Areas under the Core Curriculum. These are Languages, Literature, Communication,
Mathematics, Philosophy, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences. Current content from some General Education
subjects are embedded in the SHS curriculum.
• Each student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks: Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and
Sports and Arts. The Academic track includes three strands: Business, Accountancy, Management (BAM); Humanities,
Education, Social Sciences (HESS); and Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM).
• Students undergo immersion, which may include earn-while-you-learn opportunities, to provide them relevant
exposure and actual experience in their chosen track.
TVET (TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING) NATIONAL CERTIFICATE
• After finishing Grade 10, a student can obtain Certificates of Competency (COC) or a National Certificate Level I (NC I).
After finishing a Technical-Vocational-Livelihood track in Grade 12, a student may obtain a National Certificate Level II
(NC II), provided he/she passes the competency-based assessment of the Technical Education and Skills Development
• NC I and NC II improves employability of graduates in fields like Agriculture, Electronics, and Trade.
AIMS of the K-12 Curriculum
• Every graduate will be equipped with:
• Information, media and technology skills,
• Learning and innovation skills,
• Effective communication skills, and
• Life and career skills.
Designing the Curriculum
• Principles of Curriculum Design
• A curriculum includes
• Formal and Informal
• Overt and Covert
• Recognized and Overlooked
• Intentional and Unintentional
Values which influences curriculum design are those of:
• The curriculum designers
• The teachers
• The learners
• The society in which it is delivered
Three levels of the Curriculum:
• Planned What is intended by designer (objectives)
• Delivered What is organized by institution (philosophy)
What is taught by teachers (content)
• Experienced What is learned by student (goals)
• Child is the center of the education process and the curriculum should be built upon interests, abilities, purposes,
• A framework in which the child is guided toward maturity within the context of the social group. It assumes that in
the process of living, children experienced problem.
• Goals and objectives are specified, contents and activities are also arranged to match the learning objectives.
• Learning outcomes are evaluated in terms of goals and objectives set at the beginning Started with Frederick Taylor
aimed to achieve efficiency.
• Begins with educational plans that start with the setting of goals or objective.
• The principal is the leader/instructional leader who is also a general manager
• The general manager sets the policies and priorities, establish direction, plan and organize curriculum instruction.
• School administrators are less concerned about the content than about organization and implementation.
• Curriculum managers look at curriculum changes and innovations as they administer the resources and restructure
• Child-centered movement
• Formal or planned curriculum and informal or hidden curriculum
• Whole child believes that in curriculum the total development of individual is the prime
• The learner is the center of the curriculum.
ROLE OF CURRICULUM SUPERVISOR
• Help develops the schools education goal
• Plan curriculum with students, parents, teachers and other stakeholders
• Design programs of the study by grade levels
• Plan or schedule classes or school calendar
• Prepare curriculum guides or teacher guides by grade level or subject area
• Help in the evaluation and selection of textbooks
• Observe teachers
• Assist teachers in the implementation of the curriculum
• Encourage curriculum innovation and change
• Develop standard for curriculum and instructional evaluation
PEOPLE WHO ARE INVOLVED
o Professional organization
o Business organization
THE SIX FEATURES OF THE CURRICULUM
2. Students or learners
3. Knowledge, skills and attitudes
4. Strategy and methods
6. School performance
THE ROLE OF THE STAKEHOLDERS IN THE CURRICULUM
• Stakeholders are individuals or institutions that are interested in the school curriculum
• Their interest vary in degrees and complexity
• They get involved in many ways in the implementation, because the curriculum affects them
directly or indirectly
• These stakeholders shape the school curriculum implementation
The role of the stakeholders in the curriculum
• Stakeholders are individuals or institutions that are interested in the school
• Their interest vary in degrees and complexity
• They get involved in many ways in the implementation, because the curriculum
affects them directly or indirectly
• These stakeholders shape the school curriculum implementation
• Learners at the Center of the curriculum
• Teachers as curriculum developers and implementers
• Curriculum managers and administrators
• Parents as supporters to the curriculum
• Community members as curriculum resources
• Other stake holders in curriculum implementation
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE CURRICULUM
• Curriculum objective should be concise and understandable
• Curriculum objective should integrate and apply certain knowledge, skills and attitude.
o Durable- useful to student to considerable period of his lifetime
o Significant- has a major effect upon how the student will function
o Transferable- used in meeting needs
EVALUATING THE CURRICULUM
Herrick (1962) identifies the roles that can be assumed by person’s involved in curriculum assessment:
• The doer- child, teacher, or person whose behavior is being evaluated
• The observer- person who is looking at what the learner is doing
• The judge- person who is taking the results of observations and judging their value and adequacy.
• The actor- the individual who acts on the results of the evaluation
Measuring Devices in Assessment
• Paper-pencil test
• Analysis of projects
• Unobtrusive measure
There are two types of assessment (Scrivens, 1967)
Formative Evaluation - the purpose is to provide the developer with useful information for on-going adjustments during the program.
• Formal/informal-used during period of instruction
• Embedded tests- as part of instructions strategies
• Use of data- diagnose and remedial actions by teachers to monitor their instruction
Summative Evaluation- the purpose is making the summary or judgment on the quality or adequacy of a course (Nation, 1996).
• Presented in a report
• Use of date- to determine if students have mastered the preceding instruction
• To reveal whether or not pre-specified learning outcomes have been achieved
• To revise program and methods of subsequent groups.