By Mr. Antonio T. Delgado, BSE III General De Jesus College
Definition of Curriculum, revisited Curriculum Design, defined Types of Curriculum Design Elements of Curriculum Design Selection of Objectives Selection of Content Selection of Learning Experiences
The sum of learning stated as educational ends, educational activities, school subjects and/or topics decided upon and provided within the framework of an educational institution or in a less formal setup ( Garcia, 2007).
All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school.
somethings form and structure (Microsoft® Encarta® 2009) way something is made (Microsoft® Encarta® 2009)
Refers to the structure or the arrangement of the components or elements of a curriculum
may be broadly categorized into the following major groups:1. Traditional or subject centered designs2. Learner-centered designs3. Problem-centered or society- centered designs
Are subject-centered The emphasis is on making the learners absorb as much knowledge as possible concerning a particular course or broad field Are easy to develop and to implement because highly-structured
Criticized because they do not make provisions for the differential needs and interests of learners Most popular not only in the Philippines but in most parts of the world
May be based on the anticipated needs and interest of the learners Usually built upon normal activities children engage in (i.e. playing, storytelling, drawing) Content is not organized into subjects (Math, Science, etc.) but into courseworks (playing, storytelling)
The three R’s are integrated into the courseworks Criticized as neglecting the intellectual development of learners
Heavily loaded with societal concerns, problems and issues May be aimed at making the school, the teachers and the students agents of social change
What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experience can be provided that is likely to obtain the purpose? How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
1. Aims and objectives2. Content and learning experiences3. Method and organization4. Evaluation
TECHNICAL-SCIENTIFIC NON-SCIENTIFIC Emphasis on well- Does not usually formulated objectives proceed from predetermined objectives Interests, needs and These objectives are concerns of learner the bases for are bases for selection and selection and organization of organization of content and content and evaluation procedure. evaluation of learning.
Based on desired outcomes of teaching-learning process: development of knowledge, skills, values, attitudes and habits
Philosophy – provides basis for general theory of education and suggests its goalsAims – are considered as “orientations”Goals – are specific statements used as guidelines for achieving purposesObjectives – may describe school-wide outcomes or specific behaviors
The major educational philosophies are: Perennialism Essentialism Humanism/Progressivism Reconceptualism Reconstructionism
Oldest and most traditional “perennial” means everlasting Education is viewed as the transmission of the unchanging knowledge of the universe Focus is on permanent studies which are timeless (e.g. philosophy, logic, etc.)
Protest against perennialist thinking Education is viewed as human development that starts from the needs and interest of learners. Focuses more on the child than the subject matter
Related to progressivism Learner-centered, relevant and humanistic education More emphasis on holistic, transcendental, linguistic and artistic aspects of the teaching-learning process
Surfaced in opposition to progressivism Education is viewed as mastery of essential skills. Focus is on the three R’s, English, history and science.
Criticized progressivists’ over- emphasis on child-centered learning Is society-centered Asserts that the creation of a better society is the ultimate purpose of education Focus is alleviating discrimination and poverty, school integration
Three Different Domains Cognitive Affective Psychomotor
IN FAVOR AGAINST Provide criteria for Behavioral change assessment cannot be equated with Facilitate learning Denies the student of communication of freedom of choice intended outcomes Creativity and Measurable innovativeness can be outcomes overlooked
DepEd has come out in full support of behavioral objectives for classroom use.
Content can have different meanings: A list of subjects for a grade or year level A discipline (i.e. science, math) A specific subject (e.g. biology, physics)
Content has three components which are considered in selection of content:1. Knowledge2. Process/skill3. Affective
Concepts – regularities in objects of events designated by labels Ex: concept of water (liquid, colorless)Principles – significant relationships between and among concepts Ex: Water boils at 100˚C
Theories – contain a set of logically related principles that attempt to explain a phenomenon Ex: Theory of RelativityLaws – theories that have wide applicability and have been continuously proven to hold true. Ex: Laws of Motion
Mental processes – used in handling, dealing with or transforming information and conceptsPhysical/manipulative processes – used for moving and handling objects
Attitudes– have feeling and emotional tones Ex: openness, respect for others’ rightsValues – serve as basis for determining when attitudes and behaviors are appropriate and which are not. Ex: truth, honesty, justice
Relevance – Content reflects the social, cultural and technological realities of the timeBalance – There is a balance between the two polar goals of education: what is constant and what is changing. There should also be balance between the three domains of learning.
Validity – refers to accuracy or inaccuracy of the content. Content should also coincide with the expressed aims of the curriculum.Learnability – Content should be selected in consideration with the learners’ level of development.
Feasibility – This criterion considers: • resources (human, physical and financial) • time allotment • school calendar • enabling legislation • public support
Instructional component of the curriculum providing for the interaction between teacher, student and content These include: Teaching methods Learning activities
Appropriateness – Learning experiences should be suitable to content, objectives, domain, and learners’ level of development.Feasibility – feasible in terms of time, qualification, experience of staff, available resources, safety and legal considerations
Variety – Different activities and methods are required by different disciplines and domains.Optimal Value – Learning experiences should encourage learners to continue learning on their own.
Curriculum Development: The Philippine Experience. Garcia, Dolores (2007). Designing Curriculum. Rex Book Store. Reyes, Flordeliza C. (2000). Engineering the Curriculum. De La Salle University Press.