Mental models
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Mental models



Short presentation on the origination of mental model in UX and Information Design...

Short presentation on the origination of mental model in UX and Information Design...



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Mental models Mental models Presentation Transcript

  • Mental Models Joel Kline Texas Tech University May 23, 2007
  • If I give you my keys…could you drive my van?
  • Mental Model Theory
    • Originates from Scottish Psychologist Kenneth Craik’s work that suggests the mind constructs "small-scale models" of reality (1943).
    • Mental models can be constructed from perception, imagination, or the comprehension of discourse.
    • They normally underlie visual images, but can also be abstract and represent situations that cannot be visualized.
    • Mental models have structure that is analogous to the structure of what they represent.
    • Resemble the “picture” theory of language described by Ludwig Wittgenstein in 1922.
    • Critics of the theory argue that the mind uses inference rules not models as the basis for deductive reasoning.
    • Donald Norman and Richard Young (independently) were the first to devise a terminology for Mental Models for use in HCI around 1983
  • Definition
    • Representations of systems and environments derived from experience.
    • A mental model is accurate when the real and imagined outcomes correspond
    • Two Categories
      • Models of how systems work
      • Models of how people interact with systems
  • Good Design Occurs…
    • Results when designers have an accurate view of the system (easy) and an accurate view of the user’s interaction with the system (hard). The designer then designs a system interface that merges both models.
  • Designers can learn the user:
    • Through personal use of the system
    • Laboratory testing (usability, focus groups)
    • Direct Observation of users
  • Where do we “get” models?
    • External interface conventions - come to your interface with the users
    • Internal interface conventions - build or break trust
    • For both interface users and media developers
    • Print model has 600 years behind it
    • Build trust with consistency
    • Consistency can evolve
    Consistency is Contextual
  • MM Examples
    • Automobile
    • Doors with knobs that don’t turn
    • Any computer interface device. Have you ever tried a Dvorak keyboard?
  • InDesign Examples
    • Folios
    • Right to left reading
    • Consistent Hierarchy
    • Consistent use of bold, italics, and underline
    • Typically an issue with longer documents
  • InDesign Interface MM
  • When you have no MM?