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Interaction Paradigms
Interaction Frameworks




WS 08/09

Sigrun Ritter
Sebastian Weinhold
Innovations
Memex

„ A Memex is a device in which an individual stores
all his books, records and communications and
which is mechaniz...
oNLine system



Human Augmentation
           System
Idea is to enhance and augment human
intelligence


„ It seemed clear to everyone else at the time that
nobody would ever ...
The computer as a communication device
Vision of a heterogenous computer network
means diversity of technologies and platforms




 Early vision of the Internet ?
The ultimate
        display



          New ways

          of interacting

          with computers
A display that would create a realistic environment
in which the user would interact with haptic,
auditory and visual stim...
Innovations
Now that we have
seen some big ideas,
the question arises,
where do innovations
come from?


Let's consider th...
1.   understand current technology
     and the way people use these

2.   then apply that knowledge to the
     design of...
Criterias for analyzing a computational system


     Physical computing environment

     Social computing environment

 ...
safety        efficiency
user space   work space
lightning          noise
              pollution
Criterias for analyzing a computational system


     Physical computing environment

     Social computing environment

 ...
Social environment

                                 affects the way

                                 people use

       ...
Criterias for analyzing a computational system


     Physical computing environment

     Social computing environment

 ...
age
     disabilities
technical knowledge
   degree of focus
  cognitive stress
Interaction Paradigms

A model of HCI including all aspects of interaction.

We can analyze systems by applying the 5W+H :...
Personal computing
One example:



What/How? Main interaction architecture is the
desktop environment; access without cons...
Other paradigms

Large-scale computing

Networked computing

  Mobile computing
New paradigms
Embodied Virtuality

      The 3 ideas


1.   Pervasive computing

2.   Invisible computing

3.   Wearable computing
Virtual Reality

1.   Non-immersive computing

     screen-based, pointer-driven,
     3D graphical representations

     ...
Made with Pov-Ray
Virtual Reality

2.   Immersive computing

     overall goal is the realization
     of the ultimate display

     active ...
shows visual and auditory integration
demonstrates visual and haptic integration (University of Paderborn)
Interaction
Frameworks
The Structure of an Action   (Norman)




             execution
   goal                  evaluation




Evaluation
Interaction Framework     (Abowd, Beale)



                   Output
    presentation               observation




Syste...
Gulf of Execution/Evaluation




System                Our goals
Semantic Distance
distance between the available functionality of the
system and the functionality required to complete a
...
Mental Model

1.   cognitive representation of how something
     is constructed and how it functions

2. derived from int...
Mapping
describes how we make connections
between things
Take Home Message


A natural mapping extremely increases usability of an
interface, therefore use it whenever it is possi...
The ultimative user experience:

Interaction Styles
Command Line
Menu-Based Interface
Form Fill-In
Question and Answer
Metaphors
Direct Manipulation: GUI
Into the next dimension:

3D-Environments
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3249/2600392875_56e4af66a4.jpg?v=0
Zoomable Interfaces




          3D-Space Visual File System for Mac OS X
Google Earth
Natural Language




  I haven't listened to The Coral
  for a long time.
Connecting the web with language
Discussion

The interaction style that is dominant today with regard to personal
computing is the two-dimensional GUI. Can...
Interaction Paradigms
Interaction Paradigms
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Interaction Paradigms

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Introduction to interaction paradigms in computational devices.

Presentation by Sigrun Ritter, Sebastian Weinhold

Published in: Design

Interaction Paradigms

  1. 1. Interaction Paradigms Interaction Frameworks WS 08/09 Sigrun Ritter Sebastian Weinhold
  2. 2. Innovations
  3. 3. Memex „ A Memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records and communications and which is mechanized, so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimitate supplement to his memory.“
  4. 4. oNLine system Human Augmentation System
  5. 5. Idea is to enhance and augment human intelligence „ It seemed clear to everyone else at the time that nobody would ever take seriously the idea of using computers in direct, immediate interaction with people.“ (Engelbart, 1968)
  6. 6. The computer as a communication device
  7. 7. Vision of a heterogenous computer network means diversity of technologies and platforms Early vision of the Internet ?
  8. 8. The ultimate display New ways of interacting with computers
  9. 9. A display that would create a realistic environment in which the user would interact with haptic, auditory and visual stimuli without having real world physical constraints. obstacles Discuss usage implementation .media time!
  10. 10. Innovations Now that we have seen some big ideas, the question arises, where do innovations come from? Let's consider the 3 magic rules of HCI
  11. 11. 1. understand current technology and the way people use these 2. then apply that knowledge to the design of systems that address human needs 3. in this process develop new and novel ways to aid people in their tasks
  12. 12. Criterias for analyzing a computational system Physical computing environment Social computing environment Cognitive computing environment
  13. 13. safety efficiency user space work space lightning noise pollution
  14. 14. Criterias for analyzing a computational system Physical computing environment Social computing environment Cognitive computing environment
  15. 15. Social environment affects the way people use computers Computers must be designed adequately
  16. 16. Criterias for analyzing a computational system Physical computing environment Social computing environment Cognitive computing environment
  17. 17. age disabilities technical knowledge degree of focus cognitive stress
  18. 18. Interaction Paradigms A model of HCI including all aspects of interaction. We can analyze systems by applying the 5W+H : 1. What/How 2. Where/When 3. Who/Why
  19. 19. Personal computing One example: What/How? Main interaction architecture is the desktop environment; access without constraints Where/When? Home, work; at any time Who/Why? Everybody; for productivity, personal services
  20. 20. Other paradigms Large-scale computing Networked computing Mobile computing
  21. 21. New paradigms
  22. 22. Embodied Virtuality The 3 ideas 1. Pervasive computing 2. Invisible computing 3. Wearable computing
  23. 23. Virtual Reality 1. Non-immersive computing screen-based, pointer-driven, 3D graphical representations like Apple's QuickTime VR (uses 2D photographs to create 3D models)
  24. 24. Made with Pov-Ray
  25. 25. Virtual Reality 2. Immersive computing overall goal is the realization of the ultimate display active systems: user can manipulate virtual objects
  26. 26. shows visual and auditory integration
  27. 27. demonstrates visual and haptic integration (University of Paderborn)
  28. 28. Interaction Frameworks
  29. 29. The Structure of an Action (Norman) execution goal evaluation Evaluation
  30. 30. Interaction Framework (Abowd, Beale) Output presentation observation System User performance articulation Input
  31. 31. Gulf of Execution/Evaluation System Our goals
  32. 32. Semantic Distance distance between the available functionality of the system and the functionality required to complete a task Articulatory Distance the distance between the physical appearance of the device controls and their actual function
  33. 33. Mental Model 1. cognitive representation of how something is constructed and how it functions 2. derived from interaction and past experience 3. might be erroneous
  34. 34. Mapping describes how we make connections between things
  35. 35. Take Home Message A natural mapping extremely increases usability of an interface, therefore use it whenever it is possible!
  36. 36. The ultimative user experience: Interaction Styles
  37. 37. Command Line
  38. 38. Menu-Based Interface
  39. 39. Form Fill-In
  40. 40. Question and Answer
  41. 41. Metaphors
  42. 42. Direct Manipulation: GUI
  43. 43. Into the next dimension: 3D-Environments
  44. 44. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3249/2600392875_56e4af66a4.jpg?v=0
  45. 45. Zoomable Interfaces 3D-Space Visual File System for Mac OS X
  46. 46. Google Earth
  47. 47. Natural Language I haven't listened to The Coral for a long time.
  48. 48. Connecting the web with language
  49. 49. Discussion The interaction style that is dominant today with regard to personal computing is the two-dimensional GUI. Can you imagine a completely different interaction style than those known to us? What's your oppinion on the idea of a 3D-web, as mentioned by PicLens? What do you personally expect from future innovations in HCI? Which role will virtual realities play in our future?

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