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MENTAL MODELS
Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge,
Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith



                  ...
It’s easy to recognize
 miscommunication,
 but more difficult to
     identify why it
       happens.
SH ORT T ER M
                                         PE RC E PT ION S
Mental Models
are the images, assumptions, and
sto...
Our Filter
Mental Models help us sift through
and process huge amounts of data
daily. Without them, we’d be
overwhelmed by...
Unique Perception
They profoundly influence our lives
on an individual level, like a
colored lens becoming more
saturated ...
Unique Perception
They profoundly influence our lives
on an individual level, like a
colored lens becoming more
saturated ...
Unique Perception
They profoundly influence our lives
on an individual level, like a
colored lens becoming more
saturated ...
Like computer models or
 architectural models, mental
 models offer an imperfect but
useful representation of reality.
Mental Models are tacit
understood or implied without being stated




©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F ...
Mental Models are tacit
Exercise:
There is a list of words on the next page.
Look at the list for 10 seconds, memorize as
...
Mental Models are tacit
Look at the list for 10 seconds, memorize as
many as you can, and then move on to the
next slide.
...
Mental Models are tacit
How many did you remember? Write them
a$ down.




©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O ...
Mental Models are tacit
Was sleep in there? We thought so.
This is one of your many mental
models playing tricks on you.

...
In addition to being tacit...

Mental Models are flawed
Mental Models are flawed
Exercise:
Match the images below with a job title.




                                          ...
Mental Models are flawed
Making choices like this reveals a unique
underlying %amework for decision making:
a$ of our past...
These exercises helped us reflect
on our own models momentarily.
 True exploration, though, is only
found through continuo...
So, how are mental models built?
Your Social Life                       SH ORT T ER M
                                      PE RC E PT ION S
matters more t...
I T AK E ACT I ON
                                        B A SE D ON
                                          BE L I E F...
I T AK E ACT I ON
                                 B A SE D ON
                                   BE L I E F S




       ...
The “Expert Problem”
Specialists fall into Mental Models’ traps
easily, because we tend to work with
those who share a com...
User Experience
Those who design for others, specifically
digital user experience, should be very aware
of Mental Models. ...
Your Colleagues
Everyone wants to work in a harmonious,
tolerant work environment. Thinking about
your colleagues’ Mental ...
Mental Models in Business
Why corporations should (and do) care.
Shell: A Realization That Ushered In A New World View
B Y D I S COV E R IN G AND ACKNOWLEDGING MENTAL MODELS, SHELL C O M ...
NASA: The Perils of Mental Models
T WO DI S A S TER S THAT WERE NOT A FAULT OF ENGINEERING BUT C AUS E D B Y N A S A’ S M ...
“Creativity is mixing and matching patterns of
everything you've ever experienced or come to know
in your lifetime. It's s...
E X P L IC IT
                            K N OW L E D G E




                                      TAC IT
              ...
Special thanks to our mentors and friends at
MENTAL MODELS
Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge,
Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith



                  ...
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MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 1 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 2 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 3 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 4 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 5 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 6 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 7 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 8 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 9 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 10 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 11 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 12 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 13 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 14 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 15 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 16 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 17 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 18 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 19 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 20 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 21 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 22 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 23 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 24 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 25 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 26 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 27 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 28 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 29 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 30 MENTAL MODELS:  Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Slide 31
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MENTAL MODELS: Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith

  1. 1. MENTAL MODELS Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Presentation by Amy Rae @elucidateamy & Joanna Beltowska @jbeltowska
  2. 2. It’s easy to recognize miscommunication, but more difficult to identify why it happens.
  3. 3. SH ORT T ER M PE RC E PT ION S Mental Models are the images, assumptions, and stories which we carry in our minds of ourselves, other people, institutions, and every aspect of the world. They can help us understand why miscommunications happen. SE M I -PERMANENT M A PS
  4. 4. Our Filter Mental Models help us sift through and process huge amounts of data daily. Without them, we’d be overwhelmed by existence.
  5. 5. Unique Perception They profoundly influence our lives on an individual level, like a colored lens becoming more saturated over time.
  6. 6. Unique Perception They profoundly influence our lives on an individual level, like a colored lens becoming more saturated over time. Joe
  7. 7. Unique Perception They profoundly influence our lives on an individual level, like a colored lens becoming more saturated over time. Jim Joe
  8. 8. Like computer models or architectural models, mental models offer an imperfect but useful representation of reality.
  9. 9. Mental Models are tacit understood or implied without being stated ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 7
  10. 10. Mental Models are tacit Exercise: There is a list of words on the next page. Look at the list for 10 seconds, memorize as many as you can, and then move on to the next slide. ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 8
  11. 11. Mental Models are tacit Look at the list for 10 seconds, memorize as many as you can, and then move on to the next slide. ★ Slumber ★ Pillow ★ Dream ★ Night ★ Bed ★ Blanket ★ Quiet ★ Pajamas ★ Nap ★ Snooze ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 9
  12. 12. Mental Models are tacit How many did you remember? Write them a$ down. ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 10
  13. 13. Mental Models are tacit Was sleep in there? We thought so. This is one of your many mental models playing tricks on you. ★ Slumber ★ Pillow ★ Dream ★ Night ★ Bed ★ Blanket ★ Quiet ★ Pajamas ★ Nap ★ Snooze ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 11
  14. 14. In addition to being tacit... Mental Models are flawed
  15. 15. Mental Models are flawed Exercise: Match the images below with a job title. DO G S I TTER M CD ON A L D’ S E MP LOY E E A ST R O PH Y SI C I ST
  16. 16. Mental Models are flawed Making choices like this reveals a unique underlying %amework for decision making: a$ of our past experiences. In moments like this, assumptions run rampant. M CDO NA L D’ S D OGSI TTE R E MPL OY EE A ST R O PH Y SI C I ST
  17. 17. These exercises helped us reflect on our own models momentarily. True exploration, though, is only found through continuous inquiry and deep reflection over time.
  18. 18. So, how are mental models built?
  19. 19. Your Social Life SH ORT T ER M PE RC E PT ION S matters more than you think. Each interaction creates neurological pathways, like ruts and grooves in your brain. The more we think, behave, and interact in a certain way, the deeper ruts and grooves SE M I -PERMANENT become. Ultimately, these are our M A PS neural networks: the science behind mental models.
  20. 20. I T AK E ACT I ON B A SE D ON BE L I E F S I A DOP T BE LI E F S I DR AW CONC LUS I ONS Ladder of Inference I MAK E AS SUM PT I ONS B A SE D ON T HE How Mental Models are Formed “ DAT A” I A DDE D I ADD ME A NI NG S ( CUL TU RA L, P E RS O NAL ) I S E L E CT “ DAT A” F RO M WH AT I O B SE R V E OB S E RV AB L E “D ATA” AND E XP E R I E NCE S
  21. 21. I T AK E ACT I ON B A SE D ON BE L I E F S I A DOP T BE LI E F S I DR AW CONC LUS I ONS The more frequent the I MAK E climb, the easier it AS SUM PT I ONS B A SE D ON T HE “ DAT A” I A DDE D becomes. I ADD ME A NI NG S ( CUL TU RA L, P E RS O NAL ) I S E L E CT “ DAT A” F RO M WH AT I O B SE R V E OB S E RV AB L E “D ATA” AND E XP E R I E NCE S
  22. 22. The “Expert Problem” Specialists fall into Mental Models’ traps easily, because we tend to work with those who share a common worldview. This can get us into trouble when trying to communicate with others who do not share our expertise.
  23. 23. User Experience Those who design for others, specifically digital user experience, should be very aware of Mental Models. Each design must account for individuals’ unique knowledge and expectations.
  24. 24. Your Colleagues Everyone wants to work in a harmonious, tolerant work environment. Thinking about your colleagues’ Mental Models before jumping to conclusions will yield more hugs and better work. We promise. ES AT VERY TOLERANT COLLEAGU D UNDERCURRENT: @TAFTCAR AND @MATTHEWCA RLIN
  25. 25. Mental Models in Business Why corporations should (and do) care.
  26. 26. Shell: A Realization That Ushered In A New World View B Y D I S COV E R IN G AND ACKNOWLEDGING MENTAL MODELS, SHELL C O M P L E T E LY T R A N S F O R M E D T H E I R B U S I N E S S ★ PREDOMINANT MENTAL MODEL The oil industry is stable and predictable. Managers failed to take predicted scenarios seriously. ★ MODEL OF INQUIRY Scenario planning ★ SUGGESTED ACTION Scenario forecasting for managers ★ OUTCOME 1970: The weakest big oil company 1979: The strongest big oil company
  27. 27. NASA: The Perils of Mental Models T WO DI S A S TER S THAT WERE NOT A FAULT OF ENGINEERING BUT C AUS E D B Y N A S A’ S M E N TA L M O D E L S ★ PREDOMINANT MENTAL MODEL NASA is flawless. Successful outcomes caused people to ignore disconfirming information, out of spec performance and dysfunctional decision processes. ★ MODEL OF INQUIRY Investigative report post Columbia accident ★ SUGGESTED ACTION Unknown ★ OUTCOME Halted replacement of orbiter
  28. 28. “Creativity is mixing and matching patterns of everything you've ever experienced or come to know in your lifetime. It's saying "this is kinda like that." The neural mechanism for doing this is everywhere in the cortex.” - On Intelligence, Jeff Hawkins
  29. 29. E X P L IC IT K N OW L E D G E TAC IT KNO WLE DGE When interacting with others, never forget to appreciate the vast amount of lived experience and knowledge below the surface.
  30. 30. Special thanks to our mentors and friends at
  31. 31. MENTAL MODELS Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Presentation by Amy Rae @elucidateamy & Joanna Beltowska @jbeltowska
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