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MENTAL MODELS: Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith

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MENTAL MODELS: Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith

  1. 1. MENTAL MODELS Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Presentation by Amy Rae @elucidateamy & Joanna Beltowska @jbeltowska
  2. 2. It’s easy to recognize miscommunication, but more difficult to identify why it happens.
  3. 3. SH ORT T ER M PE RC E PT ION S Mental Models are the images, assumptions, and stories which we carry in our minds of ourselves, other people, institutions, and every aspect of the world. They can help us understand why miscommunications happen. SE M I -PERMANENT M A PS
  4. 4. Our Filter Mental Models help us sift through and process huge amounts of data daily. Without them, we’d be overwhelmed by existence.
  5. 5. Unique Perception They profoundly influence our lives on an individual level, like a colored lens becoming more saturated over time.
  6. 6. Unique Perception They profoundly influence our lives on an individual level, like a colored lens becoming more saturated over time. Joe
  7. 7. Unique Perception They profoundly influence our lives on an individual level, like a colored lens becoming more saturated over time. Jim Joe
  8. 8. Like computer models or architectural models, mental models offer an imperfect but useful representation of reality.
  9. 9. Mental Models are tacit understood or implied without being stated ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 7
  10. 10. Mental Models are tacit Exercise: There is a list of words on the next page. Look at the list for 10 seconds, memorize as many as you can, and then move on to the next slide. ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 8
  11. 11. Mental Models are tacit Look at the list for 10 seconds, memorize as many as you can, and then move on to the next slide. ★ Slumber ★ Pillow ★ Dream ★ Night ★ Bed ★ Blanket ★ Quiet ★ Pajamas ★ Nap ★ Snooze ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 9
  12. 12. Mental Models are tacit How many did you remember? Write them a$ down. ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 10
  13. 13. Mental Models are tacit Was sleep in there? We thought so. This is one of your many mental models playing tricks on you. ★ Slumber ★ Pillow ★ Dream ★ Night ★ Bed ★ Blanket ★ Quiet ★ Pajamas ★ Nap ★ Snooze ©20 11 UN D ER C U R R E N T G L O B A L . C O N F I DE N TIAL AND PROPRIETARY. 11
  14. 14. In addition to being tacit... Mental Models are flawed
  15. 15. Mental Models are flawed Exercise: Match the images below with a job title. DO G S I TTER M CD ON A L D’ S E MP LOY E E A ST R O PH Y SI C I ST
  16. 16. Mental Models are flawed Making choices like this reveals a unique underlying %amework for decision making: a$ of our past experiences. In moments like this, assumptions run rampant. M CDO NA L D’ S D OGSI TTE R E MPL OY EE A ST R O PH Y SI C I ST
  17. 17. These exercises helped us reflect on our own models momentarily. True exploration, though, is only found through continuous inquiry and deep reflection over time.
  18. 18. So, how are mental models built?
  19. 19. Your Social Life SH ORT T ER M PE RC E PT ION S matters more than you think. Each interaction creates neurological pathways, like ruts and grooves in your brain. The more we think, behave, and interact in a certain way, the deeper ruts and grooves SE M I -PERMANENT become. Ultimately, these are our M A PS neural networks: the science behind mental models.
  20. 20. I T AK E ACT I ON B A SE D ON BE L I E F S I A DOP T BE LI E F S I DR AW CONC LUS I ONS Ladder of Inference I MAK E AS SUM PT I ONS B A SE D ON T HE How Mental Models are Formed “ DAT A” I A DDE D I ADD ME A NI NG S ( CUL TU RA L, P E RS O NAL ) I S E L E CT “ DAT A” F RO M WH AT I O B SE R V E OB S E RV AB L E “D ATA” AND E XP E R I E NCE S
  21. 21. I T AK E ACT I ON B A SE D ON BE L I E F S I A DOP T BE LI E F S I DR AW CONC LUS I ONS The more frequent the I MAK E climb, the easier it AS SUM PT I ONS B A SE D ON T HE “ DAT A” I A DDE D becomes. I ADD ME A NI NG S ( CUL TU RA L, P E RS O NAL ) I S E L E CT “ DAT A” F RO M WH AT I O B SE R V E OB S E RV AB L E “D ATA” AND E XP E R I E NCE S
  22. 22. The “Expert Problem” Specialists fall into Mental Models’ traps easily, because we tend to work with those who share a common worldview. This can get us into trouble when trying to communicate with others who do not share our expertise.
  23. 23. User Experience Those who design for others, specifically digital user experience, should be very aware of Mental Models. Each design must account for individuals’ unique knowledge and expectations.
  24. 24. Your Colleagues Everyone wants to work in a harmonious, tolerant work environment. Thinking about your colleagues’ Mental Models before jumping to conclusions will yield more hugs and better work. We promise. ES AT VERY TOLERANT COLLEAGU D UNDERCURRENT: @TAFTCAR AND @MATTHEWCA RLIN
  25. 25. Mental Models in Business Why corporations should (and do) care.
  26. 26. Shell: A Realization That Ushered In A New World View B Y D I S COV E R IN G AND ACKNOWLEDGING MENTAL MODELS, SHELL C O M P L E T E LY T R A N S F O R M E D T H E I R B U S I N E S S ★ PREDOMINANT MENTAL MODEL The oil industry is stable and predictable. Managers failed to take predicted scenarios seriously. ★ MODEL OF INQUIRY Scenario planning ★ SUGGESTED ACTION Scenario forecasting for managers ★ OUTCOME 1970: The weakest big oil company 1979: The strongest big oil company
  27. 27. NASA: The Perils of Mental Models T WO DI S A S TER S THAT WERE NOT A FAULT OF ENGINEERING BUT C AUS E D B Y N A S A’ S M E N TA L M O D E L S ★ PREDOMINANT MENTAL MODEL NASA is flawless. Successful outcomes caused people to ignore disconfirming information, out of spec performance and dysfunctional decision processes. ★ MODEL OF INQUIRY Investigative report post Columbia accident ★ SUGGESTED ACTION Unknown ★ OUTCOME Halted replacement of orbiter
  28. 28. “Creativity is mixing and matching patterns of everything you've ever experienced or come to know in your lifetime. It's saying "this is kinda like that." The neural mechanism for doing this is everywhere in the cortex.” - On Intelligence, Jeff Hawkins
  29. 29. E X P L IC IT K N OW L E D G E TAC IT KNO WLE DGE When interacting with others, never forget to appreciate the vast amount of lived experience and knowledge below the surface.
  30. 30. Special thanks to our mentors and friends at
  31. 31. MENTAL MODELS Lessons From The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, Kleiker, Roberts, Ross and Smith Presentation by Amy Rae @elucidateamy & Joanna Beltowska @jbeltowska

Editor's Notes

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  • What was going on here?\nIt’s easy for us to describe problems, identify when things go wrong. But what could be underlying all of this?\n
  • Akin to systems thinking, memory theory, schemas\n
  • Reflection & Inquiry\n
  • Reflection & Inquiry\n
  • Reflection & Inquiry\n
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  • Socialization is stronger than we realize. Physiological reason: neurological pathways. Ruts and grooves = “neural networks”. The more we think in a particular way, the deeper ruts we create. This is an underlying, natural biological explanation that can enhance or hinder our thinking.\n
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