Design Implications of the Experience API (Tin Can API)


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The Experience API (xAPI) introduces several design implications for mobile learning that involve user experience (UX) design, interface design, service and system design, organizational design, reporting and analytics design, and instructional design. You’ll hear about the different use cases focusing on commonly anticipated business requirements that will ultimately help determine and prioritize your design objectives. This stage event will be both informative and interactive and will involve audience participation to identify and discuss the potential types of cognitive and performance processes in designing a learning experience using the xAPI.

Published in: Design, Education, Technology

Design Implications of the Experience API (Tin Can API)

  1. 1. Design Implications of the xAPI (“Tin Can API”)mLearnCon, San Jose, CA, June 19, 2013Mr. Jason Haag, Research Analyst, Mobile Learning LeadThe Tolliver Group, Inc. SETA Support for ADL
  2. 2. 2‣  ADL Initiative was established in 1999 byPresidential Executive Order 13111. The first twoADL Co-Labs opened in Alexandria, VA and Orlando,FL that same year.Advanced Distributed LearningBackground and Vision
  3. 3. 3“Provide access to the highest qualityeducation and training, tailored toindividual needs, delivered cost effectively,anywhere and anytime.”- ADL Vision
  4. 4. 4ADL Global ReachCanada ADL Partnership LabKingston, ON, CanadaNorway ADLPartnership LabOslo, NorwayUnited KingdomADL Partnership LabBuckinghamshire,United KingdomKorea ADLPartnership LabSeoul, KoreaRomania ADLPartnership LabBucharest, RomaniaLatin America and Caribbean RegionsADL Partnership LabMexico City, MexicoNATO ACT ADLPartnership LabNorfolk, VAADLInitiativeOrlando, FLAcademic ADL Co-LabMadison, WIADL InitiativeAlexandria, VAADL Center for IntelligentTutoring Systems Researchand DevelopmentMemphis, TNPoland ADLPartnership LabWarsaw, Poland
  5. 5. Design Implications of the xAPI‣  Background‣  Introduction to xAPI & LRS‣  Design Implications‣  SCORM‣  Instructional & Learning Design‣  User Experience (UX) & Interface‣  Reporting & Analytics‣  ExamplesAgenda
  6. 6. 6“So some things get invented because it issuddenly possible to invent them.”- Vint Cerf
  7. 7. Background‣  Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)•  Created to support courseware interoperability andreusability within Learning Management Systems (LMS)s•  Enables online instruction in a (desktop) browser only•  Need for Mobile SCORM! (mLearnCon 2010-2011):Earliest attempts on mobile circa 2004 (PocketSCORM)•  Works for desktop browsers (and will work in the future),but we now have many more use cases to support
  8. 8. What Are the Use Cases?
  9. 9. Next Gen “SCORM”Personalizedand BrokeredContent• Just-in-Time• Just-for-YouAccess FromAny DeviceLearn From:• Intelligent Tutors• Mentors andpeers via socialnetworks• Self-DiscoveryLearn Using:• Games• Virtual Worlds• Intelligent content
  10. 10. SCORM “- ilities”Conceptual Starting Point (High-level requirements)‣  Accessibility•  Ability to locate and access instructional components from multiplelocations and deliver them to other locations‣  Interoperability•  Ability to take instructional components developed in one system anduse them in another system‣  Durability•  Ability to withstand technology changes over time without costly redesign,reconfiguration, or recoding‣  Reusability•  Ability to use instructional components in multiple applications, courses,and contexts
  11. 11. Background‣  Result of Project Tin Can‣  Tracks experiences, informal learning, real-worldexperiences (not just completions)‣  Activities can be tracked at any level of granularity‣  Allows data storage and retrieval (ex. 3rd partyreporting and analytics tools)‣  Enables tracking mobile, games, ITS, and virtualworlds experiences‣  Collaboration of industry, government, and academia‣  Developed by open source communityWhat is the Experience API?
  12. 12. Project Tin Can‣  ADL BAA Funded Research Effort‣  Code-named “Project Tin Can” Rustici Software‣  Requirement to “modernize” SCORM communicationframework (but created new opportunities)‣  Community-derived use cases, interviews, over 100 whitepapers
  13. 13. Project Tin Can Top 5 Requirements1.  Should support a variety of content types2.  Should be simple to implement3.  Should support offline or disconnected scenarios4.  Portable content (interoperable across platforms)5.  Improved access to run-time data
  14. 14. ExperienceTracking(xAPI)LearnerProfileContentBrokeringCompetencyNetworksComparing TLA and the SCORMRun TimeEnvironment (RTE)ContentAggregationModel(CAM)Sequencing&Navigation(S&N)Training & LearningArchitecture (TLA)Any Learning Activity"On Any PlatformWeb Browser-basedInstruction
  15. 15. Comparing xAPI and the SCORM RTE‣  Course tracking:Bookmarking, completion,time, pass/fail, scores‣  Multiple scores per object,unlimited test results andinteractions‣  Secure‣  No LMS required
  16. 16. Comparing xAPI and the SCORM RTE‣  No web browser required‣  Supports offline scenarios‣  Control over your content‣  Tracks web or native apps‣  Tracks serious games,simulations, virtual worlds‣  Tracks real-world, informallearning & performance‣  Tracks team-based learning
  17. 17. How Do We Track All Of These Activities?Credit: Liz Burow (@Burlix)
  18. 18. Experience API (xAPI)‣  Transfer of data between learning systems‣  Capture learning data from any system (other than LMSapplications such as HR systems, etc.)‣  Learning does not have to originate in an LMS (learning takesplace often outside of the LMS on the web, with mentors,videos, classrooms, conferences, etc.)‣  Correlation of general activity with learning data (jobperformance data with learning data)‣  Specialized analytics (reports that werent previously possible)Key Enablers
  19. 19. 19Activity Streams‣‣  Collaboration between Google, Facebook,Microsoft and others‣  Allows reporting of experiences, not justcompletions‣  Format: <Actor> <Verb> <Object> (I did this):•  Simple Statement:I (actor) watched (verb) a video on protecting employeedata (activity)•  Complex:in the context of [information assurance certificationtraining] with result [timestamp:2013-0618T18:30:32.360Z ].
  20. 20. Example (Formal) Learning Stream‣  John Connor attempted “The War of 1812, Part 1”‣  John Connor watched “The Battle of New Orleans Video”‣  John Connor attempted “The War of 1812, Assessment”‣  John Connor answered “Question 1” with “True”‣  John Connor answered “Correctly”‣  John Connor answered “Question 2” with “False”‣  John Connor answered “Correctly”‣  John Connor answered “Question 3” with “a”‣  John Connor completed “The War of 1812, Assessment”‣  John Connor scored “90%” on “The War of 1812, Assessment”‣  John Connor satisfied objective “Battles of the War of 1812”‣  John Connor mastered objective “The War of 1812” to level “1”‣  John Connor earned “The War of 1812 – Level 1 Badge”
  21. 21. Example (Informal) Learning Stream‣  Walter Isaacson authored [Steve Jobs Biography]‣  David proofread [Steve Jobs Biography]‣  Margaret approved [Steve Jobs Biography]‣  Simon & Schuster published [Steve Jobs Biography]‣  John purchased [Steve Jobs Biography]‣  Ted read [Steve Jobs Biography]‣  Philip shared [Steve Jobs Biography]‣  Steven liked [Steve Jobs Biography]‣  Harry reviewed [Steve Jobs Biography]
  22. 22. Where Is The Data Stored?
  23. 23. Learning Management System (LMS)User ManagementCourse ManagementRun-TimePlayerSchedulingGrade BookSearchDeliveryLearning RecordsStatisticsRepositorySequencingPreferences AssessmentReportsWhat is a LMS?23Learning Management System (LMS)
  24. 24. What is a LRS?24Learning Record Store (LRS)Learning RecordsLearning Record Store (LRS)
  25. 25. ReportingSystemsAssessmentServicesSemanticAnalysisStatisticalServices25Act on ItLRS = Learning Record Store
  26. 26. Design Implications‣  No. xAPI can modernize the SCORM RTE, but doesn’treplace all aspects of SCORM‣  A SCORM xAPI verb profile is in the works!‣  Implication: It can easily work with SCORM. It doesnot replace SCORM. New SCORM content developedcould use the xAPI.Does xAPI replace SCORM?
  27. 27. Design Implications‣  No. SCORM is still useful for tracking web-baseddesktop courses.‣  If your learners need mobile access, SCORM will notwork alone. SCORM will continue to work (durability)in your LMS.‣  Implication: Is your current investment in SCORMproducing good results? Are you able to accuratelymeasure your ROI with current LMS reports?Does this mean all of the time and money weinvested in SCORM content will be worthless?
  28. 28. Design Implications‣  Only if there is a requirement.‣  xAPI isn’t a new version of SCORM.‣  Need to support mobile delivery of your course? Don’tconvert. Think mobile first.‣  Implication: Is there a need? You could easily makeyour SCORM content support the xAPI. But determineyour needs. Is it for more robust reporting/analyticsor mobile? If so you will need to setup a a LRS andalso redesign your content user interface (if mobile).Will we need to convert our training contentfrom SCORM to the xAPI?
  29. 29. Design Implications‣  Yes. The SCORM CAM and metadata can still beused.‣  An xAPI Content Package Profile is on the roadmap.Tin Can demonstrated a draft profile.‣  Implication: SCORM is not optimized for mobile soxml parsing of large manifests, metadata, etc maynot be appropriate for other learning environmentsoutside the LMS. Is Reusability and Portability arequirement?Can SCORM content packaging work with xAPI?
  30. 30. Design Implications‣  Correlation to score on an assessment or jobperformance‣  Videos within a course (or independent of a course)‣  Implication: SCORM CMI interaction data was limitedand LMS applications didn’t support test itemanalysis consistently. Still requires a systematicdesign strategy for where your LRS(s) will reside andcommunicate, and which will be authoritativesources.How can learner interactions and performancebe analyzed?
  31. 31. Instructional DesignWe are all experiencing a major paradigm shiftto think not only about instructional design,but to consider the broader impact onperformance and the learner.
  32. 32. Learning Design‣  How might we redesign our approach to curriculumdevelopment and delivery to center around the needsof the learner?‣  Combine the best attributes from disciplines of HCD,UX, ISD, etc.
  33. 33. 33Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy (Kathy Shrock)Moving Away from Linear ThinkingThe interlocking of thecognitive process
  34. 34. Design Thinking‣  Term first emerged in 80s (rise of human-centereddesign)‣  Ability to combine empathy for the context of aproblem‣  Creativity in the generation of insights and solutions‣  Rationality to analyze and fit solutions to the context‣  Divergent (ideate) and Convergent (realize)
  35. 35. Design Thinking‣  7 Steps (non-linear: can occur simultaneously anditerative)•  Define, research, ideate, prototype, choose, implement,and learn‣  Interaction between designers and stakeholdersenhance alignment‣  Feedback loops help inform intuition over time
  36. 36. Design Implications‣  Visualize large datasets and make informeddecisions‣  Plan your learning according to previously travelled“expert” paths‣  Track user progress, analyze, and group users topersonalize instruction & learning‣  Use live data to drive business decisions‣  Report data which was not easily gathered previously‣  GOAL: Improve PERFORMANCEUse Data Analytics
  37. 37. Design ImplicationsThink Outside the LMS Interface
  38. 38. Design ImplicationsBrowser Bookmarklet (formal, informal, nonformal)
  39. 39. ‣  Tappestry (social,informal)Design ImplicationsSocial & Informal (Float)
  40. 40. Design ImplicationsGamification – BlackBerry Gamification(OnPoint)
  41. 41. Design ImplicationsGamification – BlackBerry Gamification(OnPoint)xAPI statementssent to partnersystem
  42. 42. ‣  Procedural tasks (guidedresponse)‣  Evaluation by instructor,mentor may be requiredfor accurate assessment‣  Mobile capture usingcamera?‣  Using sensors to reportxAPI Statements?Design ImplicationsPsychomotor DomainArduino + ElectricImp + xAPI, LRS
  43. 43. What’s next?‣  Foster vendor/user community and tool ecosystem‣  Attract early adopters to build tools & services‣  Create open source software libraries, tools, bestpractices, and examples‣  Write articles to illustrate new capabilities enabled byusing the xAPI‣  Produce prototypes & examples using xAPI‣  Gather feedback – incorporate community input‣  Version 1.0 released on 26 April 2013
  44. 44. xAPI Resources‣  xAPI Design Implementer’s‣  xAPI Resources:‣  ADL GitHub:
  45. 45. Related Projects‣  The MoTIF Project‣  ISD & Learning Designfor Mobile•  Alternative Approaches•  Device Affordances•  Workflow Process‣‣  adlmobile@adlnet.govWednesday, June 19, 2013 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM | Session #708
  46. 46. Your Design Challenges?
  47. 47. 47Let’s Connect!@ADLmobileJason HaagMobile Learning LeadADL Technical TeamThe Tolliver Goup, Incjason.haag.ctr@adlnet.govTwitter: @mobilejson