The Training and Learning Architecture: Infrastructure for the Future of Learning

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Realizing future visions of learning requires a shared platform that serves the needs of learners. The Training and Learning Architecture (TLA) is intended to be a shared platform for learning technology that spurs innovation and promotes interoperability. The TLA is a collection of community-created Web services and open source software components to securely manage and provide interfaces to learning data, while protecting privacy.

Presentation at the XV Simposio Internacional de Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones en la Educación Conjuntamente con el Congreso Español de Informática (CEDI 2013). Madrid, 18 de Septiembre de 2013.

Published in: Education, Technology

The Training and Learning Architecture: Infrastructure for the Future of Learning

  1. 1. The Training and Learning Architecture: Infrastructure for the Future of Learning International Symposium on Information Technology and Communication in Education (SINTICE) 2013 Damon Regan, Ph.D. Contractor with The Tolliver Group, Inc. supporting the ADL Initiative
  2. 2. The Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative 2 Highest quality education and training anytime and anywhere.
  3. 3. 3 SCORM* SCORM Adopters SCORM enables an interoperable e-learning environment that has become the de facto global learning standard *Sharable Content Object Reference Model
  4. 4. 4 New Research Projects Experience Tracking Learner Profile Content Brokering Competency Networks Training and Learning Architecture (TLA) Web service specifications and open source software Virtual World Framework (VWF) Sandbox Web-based persistent virtual environment Personal Assistant for Learning (PAL) Software to support pervasive learning
  5. 5. 5 “So some things get invented because it is suddenly possible to invent them.” - Vint Cerf
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7 Project Tin Can ‣ ADL Funded Research Effort ‣ Code-named “Project Tin Can” Rustici Software ‣ Requirement to “modernize” SCORM communication framework ‣ Community-derived use cases, interviews, over 100 white papers
  8. 8. 8 Project Tin Can Requirements 1. Should support a variety of content types 2. Should be simple to implement 3. Should support offline or disconnected scenarios 4. Portable content (interoperable across platforms) 5. Improved access to run-time data
  9. 9. Unlock the power of data to spur innovation and improve quality 9
  10. 10. Move from managing “documents” to managing discrete pieces of open data and content 10
  11. 11. Information-Centric Approach 11 Presentation Layer Platform Layer Information Layer Open Data & Content (Information) Systems, Processes, Management & Web APIs Public Digital Services The Layers of Digital Services http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/egov/digital-government/digital-government.html Private Digital Services
  12. 12. 12 $1.5B was spent on educational technology in 2012
  13. 13. Training and Learning Architecture (TLA): Web APIs and Open Source Software 13 Experience Tracking Learner Profile Content Brokering Competency Networks
  14. 14. Training and Learning Architecture (TLA): Web APIs and Open Source Software 14 Experience Tracking Learner Profile Content Brokering Competency Networks
  15. 15. Credit: Liz Burow (@Burlix) 15 Experience API (xAPI)
  16. 16. What is the ? ‣ Result of Project Tin Can ‣ Tracks experiences, informal learning, real-world experiences (not just completions) ‣ Allows data storage AND retrieval (ex. 3rd party reporting and analytics tools) ‣ Enables tracking mobile, games, ITS, and virtual worlds experiences ‣ Developed by open source community 16
  17. 17. Comparing xAPI and the SCORM RTE ‣ Course tracking: Bookmarking, completion, time, pass/fail, scores ‣ Multiple scores per object, unlimited test results and interactions ‣ No LMS required ‣ No web browser required SCORM Run-Time Environment 17
  18. 18. Comparing xAPI and the SCORM RTE ‣ Supports offline scenarios ‣ Control over your content ‣ Tracks web or native apps ‣ Tracks serious games, simulations, virtual worlds ‣ Tracks real-world, informal learning & performance ‣ Tracks team-based learning 18 SCORM Run-Time Environment
  19. 19. 19 Activity Streams ‣ http://activitystrea.ms ‣ Collaboration between Google, Facebook, Microsoft and others ‣ Allows reporting of experiences, not just completions ‣ Format: <Actor> <Verb> <Object> (I did this): Simple Statement: I (actor) watched (verb) a video on protecting employee data (object) Complex: in the context of [information assurance certification training] with result [timestamp:2013-0618T18:30:32.360Z ].
  20. 20. Reporting Systems Assessment Services Semantic Analysis Statistical Services 20 Learning Record Store (LRS)
  21. 21. Learning Management System (LMS) User Management Course Management Run-Time Player Scheduling Grade Book Search Delivery Learning Records Statistics Repository Sequencing Preferences AssessmentReports What is an LRS? Learning Management System (LMS) or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) 21
  22. 22. Just the Learning Records Learning Record Store (LRS) Learning Records Learning Record Store (LRS) 22 https://github.com/adlnet/ADL_LRS
  23. 23. ‣ Version 1.0 Released in April 2013 ‣ Over 30 Adopter Products ‣ Over 100 Contributors xapi.adlnet.gov 23
  24. 24. Training and Learning Architecture (TLA): Web APIs and Open Source Software 24 Experience Tracking Learner Profile Content Brokering Competency Networks
  25. 25. 25 TLA Content Brokering From Durlach & Spain: Forms of Adaptation in a Framework for Instructional Technology
  26. 26. 26 Managing Content 3D Repository Open source repository for 3D models Re-Usability Support System for E-Learning (RUSSEL) Open source repository for e- learning content
  27. 27. 27 Discovering Content
  28. 28. 28 Understanding Content Metadata, repositories, and registries that support discovery and access should align content with objectives, standards, or competency information LRMI Properties: • name • about • author • educationalAlignment • … Competency Definitions
  29. 29. 29 Not just metadata… ‣ Paradata: a particular kind of metadata. • Specifically, paradata is usage data. • How is something being used? ‣ Shared with Learning Registry based on activity streams specification • actor, verb, object ‣ Example: • 10th grade English Languages Arts Educator (actor) matched academic standard Y (verb) with resource X (object)
  30. 30. Training and Learning Architecture (TLA): Web APIs and Open Source Software 30 Experience Tracking Learner Profile Content Brokering Competency Networks
  31. 31. TLA Competency Networks Learning Management Systems Registries & Repositories Assessment Systems E-portfolios Social Networks Objectives, standards, or competency information needs to be shared across learning applications Shared objectives, standards, or competency information 31
  32. 32. 32 Competency Structure vs. Actual Competencies Represent and structure information, but does not set out any specific learning outcome or competence definitions or structures.
  33. 33. 33 Existing Competency Frameworks ‣ MedBiquitous Competency Framework • ANSI accredited technical standard for representing competency frameworks • Developed for healthcare education ‣ Achievement Standards Network (ASN) • Open specification used with K-12 standards ‣ Integrating Learning Outcomes and Competences (inLOC) • Recently completed European funded project Each provides methods to model definitions, structures, and relationships
  34. 34. Training and Learning Architecture (TLA): Web APIs and Open Source Software 34 Experience Tracking Learner Profile Content Brokering Competency Networks
  35. 35. 35 TLA Learner Profiles
  36. 36. 36 Relationship to Competencies Proficient In Progress Desired Learner ProfileCompetencies Definition
  37. 37. 37 Learner Profile Visualization
  38. 38. 38 Owning Your Data ‣ Multiple Personas for Multiple Systems • Work • School • Hobbies • Neighborhood • Etc. ‣ Rather than storage in multiple places “owned” by different systems, all centralized and YOU grant permissions. ‣ Data migration easier
  39. 39. 39 Data Relationships badgeClass B1 alignment: 01 criteria: P1 Learner L1 activity • L1 used R1 • L1 used R2 • L1 achieved O1 resource R1 (LRMI) teaches O1 resource R2 (LRMI) assesses O1 objective O1 page P1 (LRMI) alignment: O1 resources R1, R2 badgeAssertion B1L1 badge: B1 Evidence: L1activity Learning data revolves around competency definitions
  40. 40. 40 Linked TLA Services and Data badgeClass B1 alignment: 01 criteria: P1 Learner L1 activity • L1 used R1 • L1 used R2 • L1 achieved O1 resource R1 (LRMI) teaches O1 resource R2 (LRMI) assesses O1 objective O1 page P1 (LRMI) alignment: O1 resources R1, R2 badgeAssertion B1L1 badge: B1 Evidence: L1activity Experience Tracking Learner Profile Competency Networks Content Brokering
  41. 41. 41 Personal Assistant for Learning (PAL) Software to enable pervasive learning ‣ Better retention by spacing learning in time ‣ Better transfer by varying learning context ‣ Better mastery by personalizing pace, path, context, and method of instruction ‣ Better completion by adapting to non-cognitive factors such as confidence and motivation.
  42. 42. Learner-PAL UIs Learner - Recommendations - Engagement Workflows - Context Awareness - Personalization Services Learning Methods - Authoring - Curation - Competencies / Topics - Learning Objects - Metadata - Learner Profile Author - Podcasts - Virtual Environments - Perceptual Learning Modules - ITS - Apps - I/O Devices - Sensors Back End Authoring UIs Front End External Interfaces External Resources PAL Architecture PAL Services Data Repository Commercial - Outlook Calendar - Social Network - Maps TLA - Competency Networks - Content Brokering - Learner Profiles - Experience Tracking Other PAL Implementations - Vendor A - Vendor B - …
  43. 43. Virtual World Framework (VWF) Sandbox Persistent virtual environment that runs in a web browser http://vwf.adlnet.gov Traditional Virtual World Game Engine 3D Modeling Tool https://github.com/adlnet/Sandbox 43 Apache License 2.0
  44. 44. 44 Example Virtual Game and xAPI Nutrition Mission Game Choose the food to complete your mission (xAPI publish example) Connected Garden Virtual environment connected to real garden (xAPI read example)
  45. 45. 45 Querying the LRS function tick() { var d = Date.now(); if (d - this.lastTick > 30000) { this.pointsQuery.since = this.lastQuery; this.queryLRS('http://imaginarium2.adlnet.org/xapi', this.pointsQuery, this.processResults.bind(this)); } }
  46. 46. 46 The LRS Query { "agent": { "account": { "homePage": "http://imaginarium.adlnet.org", "name": “plant1" } }, "verb": "http://imaginarium.adlnet.org/xapi/verbs/grew", "since": "2013-09-13T04:00:00.370Z" }
  47. 47. 47 Animating the Plant function processResults(data) { var score = 0; for (var i in data.statements) { score += data.statements[i].context .extensions['http://imaginarium.adlnet.org/xapi/nouns/imaginarium'] [‘plant-growth-value']; } this.animationFrame = transformScore(score); }
  48. 48. Resources 48 Conference Paper http://www.e-ucm.es/sintice2013/sintice2013_01_Regan.pdf Training & Learning Architecture (TLA) http://www.adlnet.gov/tla TLA Experience API (Tin Can API) & Public Groups http://xapi.adlnet.gov ADL GitHub Main Link https://github.com/adlnet VWF Sandbox http://vwf.adlnet.gov/adl/sandbox/
  49. 49. 49 Thank you! @damonregan Damon Regan, Ph.D. Technical Team Co-Lead The Tolliver Group, Inc damon.regan.ctr@adlnet.gov

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