History of computers

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Computer architecture overview and history of computers

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History of computers

  1. 1. Introduction to Computer Architecture Van Hoang Nguyen Mail: startnewday85@gmail.com Department of Computer Science
  2. 2. Agenda • What is a computer? • Classes of computers • What is computer architecture? • History of computersIntroduction to Computer Architecture 1 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  3. 3. What is a computer ?Introduction to Computer Architecture 2 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  4. 4. What is a computer ?Introduction to Computer Architecture 3 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  5. 5. What is a computer ?Introduction to Computer Architecture 4 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  6. 6. What is a computer ?Introduction to Computer Architecture 5 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  7. 7. What is a computer ? Is a device which processes informationIntroduction to Computer Architecture 6 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  8. 8. Classes of computers • Have many ways to clasify • Essential of Material – Machanics – Electronics – Biology • How is used – Desktop computer – Server computer – Embedded computerIntroduction to Computer Architecture 7 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  9. 9. What „s computer architecture? How to make a computer? Step 1 Sep 02 Step 03 Step 04 Determine Specify Design Implementation requirements requirements Instruction Set Architecture(ISA) Organization HardwareIntroduction to Computer Architecture 8 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  10. 10. What‟s computer architecture? • Programer‟view: ISA – Amdahl,1964 • Design of Computer system from it‟s instruction set and structure down to function units – Harold S. Stone, 1987 • System concept integrating hardware, softwarem algorithm and languages – Hwang and Briggs, 1984 • Instruction Set Design, Organization, and Hardware – Hennessy and Patterson, 1990Introduction to Computer Architecture 9 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  11. 11. What‟s computer architecture? Computer system‟s Abstraction Levels • Coordination of many levels Application of abstraction OS • Under a rapidly changing Compiler set of forces ISA Instr. Set Proc I/O System • Design, Measurement, and Data Path and Control Evaluation Digital Design Circuit Design LayoutIntroduction to Computer Architecture 10 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  12. 12. History of computers • Abacus considered first mechanical computing device • Used beads and rods to count numbers. AbacusIntroduction to Computer Architecture 11 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  13. 13. History of computers • 1612, John Napier used floating point arithmetic and invented the logarithm • 1622, William Oughtred created the slide rule based on Napier‟s logarithms. William Oughtred (1575–1660)Introduction to Computer Architecture 12 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  14. 14. History of computers • 1642, Blaise Pascal created a machine which could add and substract, automatically carrying numbers. Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaise_PascalIntroduction to Computer Architecture 13 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  15. 15. History of computers • 1673, Gottfried Leibnitz built a calculator which could mutiply as well. Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716) http://history-computer.com/MechanicalCalculators/Pioneers/Lebniz.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture 14 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  16. 16. History of computers • He invented an automatic loom using punched cards to control patterns in the fabrics. • Starting the industrial age Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752–1834) http://www.thocp.net/timeline/1773.htm http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/technology/manufactures/textile/jacquard.htmIntroduction to Computer Architecture 15 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  17. 17. History of computers • 1822, He designed the Difference Engine which can compute navigational tables. • 1833, He designed the Analytical Engine • 1991, it is built by the Science Museum in London Charles Babbage (1752–1834) http://www.computermuseum.li/Testpage/DifferenceEngineBabbage.htm http://www.electronicsweekly.com/Articles/2008/04/01/43442/babbages-difference-engine-heads-for-california.htmIntroduction to Computer Architecture 16 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  18. 18. History of computers • He developed a mechanical tabulator based on puched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data • Founded Hollerith Tabulating Company Which became IBM in 1924 Herman Hollerith (1860–1929) http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/accession/102630712 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_Hollerith http://s960.photobucket.com/albums/ae87/writeaprogram/Nov2010/?action=view&current=herman-hollerith-tabulating-machine.gif&newest=1Introduction to Computer Architecture 17 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  19. 19. History of computers • 0th Generation( - 1900): MechanicsIntroduction to Computer Architecture 18 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  20. 20. History of computers • 1935 – 38, He developed Z1 and Z2 mechanical computers using binary arithmetic. Konrad Zuse (1910-1995) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konrad_Zuse http://mytechnologyworld9.blogspot.com/2009/01/most-powerful-supercomputers-brains-and.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture 19 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  21. 21. History of computers • 1936 – 39, They built Atanasoff-Berry Computer(ABC) for solving linear systems in physics. Introduced ALU and rewriting memory John Vincent Atanasoff (1903-1995) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Vincent_Atanasoff Clifford Berry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_Berry (1918-1963)Introduction to Computer Architecture 20 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  22. 22. History of computers • 1943, Alan Turing built Colossus which is used to break German codes(is encrypted by ENIGMA machine). Alan Turing (1912-1954) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing http://www.umass.edu/wsp/methodology/outline/turing.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture 21 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  23. 23. History of computers • 1944, Harvard Mark 1 is built, which is used to compute artillery and navigation tables Howard Hathaway Aiken (1900-1973) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Aiken http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?year=1944Introduction to Computer Architecture 22 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  24. 24. History of computers • ENIAC – The first Electronic Computer • 1943, work started on ENIAC at University of Pennsylvania under John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert with Herman GoldsteinIntroduction to Computer Architecture 23 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  25. 25. History of computers Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer • Used 18000 vacuum tubes • U shaped, 25m long, 2.5m high, 1.5m wide • Programmed by plugging cables and setting switches • From 1 hour to 1 day to programmIntroduction to Computer Architecture 24 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  26. 26. History of computers • 1944, He joined to ENIAC team • Credited with the idea of storing programs as numbers • 1945, He proposed a stored program computer called EDVAC John von Neumann (1900-1973)Introduction to Computer Architecture 25 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  27. 27. History of computers John von Neumann‟s Architecture • Stored program • Instructions in a linear memory array • Instructions in memory can be modified just like data • Sequential instruction processing • Program counter identifies the current instruction • Instruction is fetched from memory and excuted • Program counter is advanced(according to instruction) • repeatIntroduction to Computer Architecture 26 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  28. 28. History of computers • 1947, William Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain invent the transistor • 1949, Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge developed EDSAC, the first large scale, fully operational stored program computer • 1951, Remington-Rand sold UNIVAC 1 to US government for $1 000 000Introduction to Computer Architecture 27 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  29. 29. History of computers • 1947, William Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain invent the transistor • 1949, Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge developed EDSAC, the first large scale, fully operational stored program computer • 1951, Remington-Rand sold UNIVAC 1 to US government for $1 000 000 • 1950‟s, IBM produces series of computers(IBM 701,702) • 1957, Fortran - the first programming language is instroducedIntroduction to Computer Architecture 28 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  30. 30. History of computers • 0th Generation( - 1900): Mechanics • 1th Generation(1900-1957): Vancuum tubeIntroduction to Computer Architecture 29 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  31. 31. History of computers • 1958, Integrated Circuit invented • 1960, DEC PDP-1, Precursor to the Minicomputer • 1965, IBM/360 Mainframe is introduced using integrated circuits • 1965, DEC introduced PDP-8, first minicomputer http://www.galeon.com/colposfesz/hiacomp/tercerag.htm http://www.cedmagic.com/history/dec-pdp-8.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture 30 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  32. 32. History of computers • 0th Generation( - 1900): Mechanics • 1th Generation(1900-1957): Vancuum tube • 2th Generation(1957-1965): TransitorIntroduction to Computer Architecture 31 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  33. 33. History of computers • Integrated Circuit(IC): Small Scale Integration(SSI), Medium Scale Integration(MSI), Large Scale Integration(LSI). • 1971, Intel 4004 the first microprocessor • 1973, Xerox invents Ethernet • 1975, First PC, MITS Altair 8800, Bill Gates and Paul Allen wrote a BASIC compiler for the Altair. http://chandrakantha.com/articles/indian_music/filmi_sangeet/film_song_1971.html http://oldcomputers.net/altair.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture 32 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  34. 34. History of computers • 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak develop Apple I in their parent‟s garage. • 1976, Cray-1: The first supercomputer announced • 1977, TRS-80 released by Tandy CorporationIntroduction to Computer Architecture 33 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  35. 35. History of computers • 0th Generation( - 1900): Mechanics • 1th Generation(1900-1957): Vancuum tube • 2th Generation(1957-1965): Transitor • 3th Generation(1966-1980): SSI, MSI, LSIIntroduction to Computer Architecture 34 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  36. 36. History of Computers • Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and Super Large Scale Integration(SLSI) • IBM PC 1981, Intel 8088 and DOS OS • 1981, First “Portable Computer”Introduction to Computer Architecture 35 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  37. 37. History of Computers • 1982, Commodore 64 released • Sold in Retail Stores • 10 000 commerical software titles • Best-selling single personal computer model of all timeIntroduction to Computer Architecture 36 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  38. 38. History of Computers • 1983, First PDA released – Had 8K of RAM – Cost $199,95 (US) • 1984, Apple Macintosh introducedIntroduction to Computer Architecture 37 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  39. 39. History of Computers • 1991 – First 64bit Microprocessor produced by MIPS Technologies – R4000 • 2000 – IBM Releases first “Dual-Core” CPU –Power4 • 2003 – 64 bits brought mainstream with AMD64 • 2004 – Intel follows with EMT64 • 2005 – Intel releases Pentium D Dual- Core 64 bit processorIntroduction to Computer Architecture 38 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  40. 40. History of computers • 0th Generation( - 1900): Mechanics • 1th Generation(1900-1957): Vancuum tube • 2th Generation(1957-1965): Transitor • 3th Generation(1966-1980): SSI, MSI, LSI • 4th Generation(1981-): VLSI, SLSIIntroduction to Computer Architecture 39 VAN HOANG NGUYEN
  41. 41. References • Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing, Kai Hwang & Fayer A. Briggs, McGraw-Hill Colege, 1984, ISBN 13: 9780070315563 • High Performance Computer Architecture, Harold S. Stone, Printice Hall, 1993, ISBN 13: 9780201526882Introduction to Computer Architecture 40 VAN HOANG NGUYEN

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