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Perspectives on Learning Cogintive Approach-Piaget
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Perspectives on Learning Cogintive Approach-Piaget

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  • These stages affect the ways in which children are able to represent the world and how they are able to use their representations of the worlds as the basis for thought and therefore affect all mental abilities at about the same time. <br /> A stress is on the interaction an individual level of maturation and an environment which offers the right experience. <br /> The ultimate goal of mature thinking is the realization of logic and abstract meanings. <br />
  • -When the child thinking involves seeing moving, hearing teaching and touching. <br /> -Video: a classical mistake when you play with the 1 year old looking for ball:he will look for the ball where he last found it, not where he saw it disappear. <br /> -Learning to reverse actions. Filling and re-filling of a container. Is a great accomplishment of this stage. <br />
  • Hidden toy experiment: <br /> 4 months: no attempt to search for hidden object <br /> 4-9 months: visual search for object <br /> 9 months: search for and retrieve hidden object <br /> Beginning of goal-directed actions: Learning to reverse thinking—to reverse a sequence of actions <br /> Filling and re-filling of a container by 6 months old and older. <br />
  • The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions. And infant progresses from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage <br />

Perspectives on Learning Cogintive Approach-Piaget Perspectives on Learning Cogintive Approach-Piaget Presentation Transcript

  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Royal Commission at Yanbu Yanbu University College Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah Perspectives on learning: the cognitive approach Piaget’s Theory EDU 301 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  • Objectives Piaget’s Theory:  Schema  Assimilation  Accommodation  Equilibrium  Four Stages of Cognitive Development 2
  • Theory of Cognitive Development 1896-1980 He was one of the 20th centuries most influential researchers in the area of developmental psychology. His work contributed to our understanding of the cognitive development of children. 3
  • Piaget’s Theory Piaget became interested in how children think while working in Binet’s test lab in Paris 1896-1980 He noticed that children at a similar age make the same mistakes. Young children's answers were qualitatively different than older children. This suggested to him that younger children were not less knowledgeable but, instead, answered the questions differently than their older peers because they thought differently. 4
  • Piaget’s Theory Our thinking changes radically, though slowly, from birth to maturity because we constantly strive to make sense of the world. 5
  • Piaget’s Theory 1. Piaget’s ideas provide an explanation of the development of thinking from infancy to adulthood. Accordingly he identified four stages of development as a child grows. 2. Piaget also believed that individuals construct their own meaning (constructivism) through the interacting processes of: assimilation, adaptation, accommodation and equilibrium/disequilibrium, and 6 the extension of schema, or ways of thinking.
  • Piaget’s Theory 7
  • Schemas Baba..ammu Car…..Truck Cat…..lion A representation in the mind of a set of ideas or actions which go together. People are born with mental systems or categories of perception and experience about ourselves, other people, mechanical devices, food, and in fact almost everything. ... we use these systems to organize and simplify information about our knowledge of the world around us. Our thinking changes radically, though slowly, from birth to maturity because we constantly strive to make sense of the world. 8
  • Process of Cognitive Development Adaptation People adapt to their increasingly complex environments by using existing schemas. ……whenever new information is taken in and fits into existing schemas (assimilation) and by …………. something new is needed but doesn't fit in, one modifies and adds to his/her modifying and adding to their schemas (accommodation) Adaptation: the balance that one makes between cognitive schemas and information from the environment.
  • If we apply a particular schema to an event or situation and the schema works then equilibrium exists. Equilibrium: the mental balance between cognitive schemas and the information from the environment. If the schemas does not produce a satisfying result, then disequilibrium exists, and we become uncomfortable. 10
  • Example? 11
  • Example? 12
  • Example? Progress exercise 1.1 13
  • 14
  • Adaptation in the classroom The level of disequilibrium must be just right or optimal…too little and we aren't’ interested in changing …… ..too much and we may be discouraged or anxious and not change. This keeps us searching for a solution through assimilation and accommodation, and thus our thinking changes and moves ahead. 15
  • Piaget’s Key Concepts Schema A representation in the mind of a set of ideas or actions which go together. Assimilation: The process of taking in information into our previously existing schemas. Accommodation: Involves altering schemas as a result of new information or new experiences. Equilibration: A mechanism that assists children in achieving a balance between assimilation and accommodation 16
  • Question Jane has learned to feed herself with a spoon. When her mother gives her a fork, she immediately begins to feed herself. Jane has __________ the fork into her schema for utensils a) accommodated b)appropriated c)assimilated 17
  • Next week will continue Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development. Please read pp:2-9
  • Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Period Preoperational Period Concrete Operations Formal Operations 19 19
  • Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget’s stage theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures. This child progress through the stages in exactly the order in which they are listed. Each stage involves a qualitatively different way of thinking. No child can skip any of these stages, because each succeeding stage builds on the previous one. 20 20
  • Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Formal Operations (adolescence to adult) (11+ years) Reflexive responding Concrete Operations (~ 7-11 yrs) Preoperational Period (~2 to 6 yrs) Sensorimotor Period (~Birth to 2 yrs) 21
  • 1. Infancy: Sensori-motor stage (birth-to age 2) Begin with reflexive responding and ends with using symbols. Intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity, without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is developing, but limited because of how it is based on physical interactions, experiences and using the senses. 22
  • 1. Infancy: Sensori-motor stage (birth-to age 2) During this period the child develops object permanence and general symbolic function. Object permanence: Understanding of that objects exist is the environment whether they perceive them of not. General symbolic function: the beginning of language, makebelieve play and differed imitation. Ex. Tantrum/mastering differed imitation. Deferred imitation: the ability to imitate actions/language in the absence of the object and situation. 23
  • 2. Early childhood: Pre-operational stage (2-7) Intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols. Accordingly, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed….i.e., Limitation in logical thinking: Inability to decentre and to conserve the faulty views in regard of egocentrism 24
  • 2. Early childhood: Pre-operational stage (2-7) Egocentrism: The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective. It’s having the cognitive ability to hold and understand two apparently opposing views. Centration: Focusing on one characteristic to the exclusion of others. (Confuse appearance and reality) 25
  • Piaget’s three-mountain task 26
  • Let’s watch this video… 27
  • What is meant by conservation of number? The realization that an object remains the same even if that object changed its appearance. (Applied to length, number, liquid, area, etc.) Piaget believed that children failed to conserve because (a)t hey were unable to hold the properties of the material in their minds and (b) they were unable to mentally reverse an action. When can we say that a child has the ability to decanter? When he can see the world from another person’s point of view, then we can say that he has the ability to decanter.. (Not until the age of 9) 28
  • Egocentric conversations Page 6. Read about evaluation of egocentrism by Hughs (1975) and the examples to try to illustrate the concept. 29
  • Conservation of number 30
  • 3.The Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11) In this stage intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic treatment of symbols related to concrete objects. The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets   Children in this stage are able to conserve and decentrate, they may also be able to use reversibility Focus on the real and concrete, not the abstract 31
  • 3. The Formal Operational Stage (11+) Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts (conceptual reasoning). Adolescents can think hypothetically. Use reasoning. 32
  • Criticisms of Piaget Egocentrism is difficult to be defined  1. Regarding the concept. What is actually meant by egocentrism? What is meant by “another person’s point of view? IMPORT: Read about limitations on your book (page 9) 33
  • Criticisms of Piaget Underestimated the ability of children, and of older individuals, because his tests were sometimes confusing or difficult to understand. Devoted little attention to social and cultural influences. Ignored individual differences. Provided a vague explanation on cognitive maturation. Stated that normal operational thinking is not universal Failed to distinguish competence from performance Said very little about how to translate his ideas into classrooms. 34
  • Applications of Theory in the Classroom Jean Piaget’s theories are imbedded into the school system in the sense that the curriculum is based on his stage theory. The curriculum is designed to teach students at the first stage and progressively teach new learning to change the schemas in order to move students through each stage. The teacher starts at the basics introducing a new sublet and once the knowledge of that subject is mastered, they would create a schema. 35
  • Applications of Theory in the Classroom  In the transition to the next new learning method, the teacher would demonstrate how the student will change, modify or adapt their schema to the new method in order for new learning to take place. When children enter the school they are generally at the preoperational stage. Teachers must recognize that they cannot learn concrete-operational strategies until the students have mastered the preoperational schemas. In other words, students must start at the basic first stage and master it before they can progress well to higher stages 36
  • Students with exceptionalities  Students with special needs do not move through these stages as fast as or much faster than other students. Why? Because students with special needs do not develop the same as other students, they do not adapt to their environment in the same way. 37
  • The question is….. How can you as a teacher help after you have learned about these four stages? 38
  • The ability to think abstractly and systematically solve problems emerges during the ___________ a) concrete operational stage b)sensorimotor stage c) formal operational stage d)preoperational stage 39
  • Jean Piaget was a _____________. a) Child psychologist b)Developmental psychologist c)Biologist d) all the above
  • A schema is a... a) Category of knowledge that allows us to interpret and understand the world. b)Process of taking in new information. c)Process of balancing old knowledge and new information. d)None of the above
  • Take away Points and Terms 42