Piaget

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  • Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development.  His contributions include a theory of cognitive child development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities. Before Piaget’s work, the common assumption in psychology was that children are merely less competent thinkers than adults.  Piaget showed that young children think in strikingly different ways compared to adults.  According to Piaget, children are born with a very basic mental structure (genetically inherited and evolved) on which all subsequent learning and knowledge is based.
  • The Piaget stages of development describes the stages of normal intellectual development, from infancy through adulthood. This includes thought, judgment, and knowledge.
  • They learn: -Because they don't yet know how things react, they're constantly experimenting with activities such as shaking or throwing things, putting things in their mouths. that they exist separately from the objects and people around them that they can cause things to happen that things continue to exist even when they can't see them
  • -At about age 7 to 9 months, infants begin to realize that an object exists even if it can no longer be seen. This important milestone -- known as object permanence -- is a sign that memory is developing.  -In older infants, when a toy is covered the child will actively search for the object, realizing that the object continues to exist.
  • Piaget

    1. 1. 2012/ 2012/ & ICT TEFL 2013 & ICT TEFL 2013 MA MA Piagetian cognitive development theory EDU PsychoPrepared By:Naima SELLAM Supervised By:Rahma KAFFA Dr.Youssef Tamer
    2. 2. The outline I _ Introduction II_ Piaget’s cognitive processesIII_ Cognitive Development StagesIV_ How to apply Piaget’s theoryin the classroom? V_ Evaluation of Piagets Theory Conclusion
    3. 3. II_ How we gain knowledge: Piaget’s Cognitive Processes• Schemas: describes both the mental and physical actions involved an understandingAnd knowing the world. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world.In Piaget’s view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add or change previously existing schemas.
    4. 4. • Assimilation: The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schemas is known as assimilation. This process is subjective because we tend to modify experience or information to fit it with our pre-existing beliefs.• Accommodation: It involves altering or changing existing schemas or ideas as a result of new information or new experience. New schemas may be also be developed during this process.
    5. 5. • Equilibration: Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is achieved through a mechanism called equilibration. As children progress through the stages of cognitive development, it’s important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge –assimilation- and changing behaviour to account for new knowledge – accommodation-.• Equilibration helps us to explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought into the next.
    6. 6. • Cognitive development is a complex process comprising three main concepts: Assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. All three are associated with the formation and modification of schemata in order to attain a balanced sense of understanding of the external world.
    7. 7. Processes Example Angie who has never seen anything Schemata fly but birds thinks that all flying objects are birds. Assimilation Seeing an airplane flying prompts the child to call it a bird.Start Accommodation Child experiences conflict upon realizing that the new bird has no feathers. Concludes it is not a bird and asks for the proper term or invents a name. Equilibrium restored. Organization Forms hierarchical scheme consisting of a super ordinate class (flying objects) and twoFinish subordinate classes (birds and airplanes).
    8. 8. III_ Piaget’s stages of cognitive development• According to Piaget, a child’s development progresses through 4 qualitative stages and an invariant developmental sequence- universal pattern of development, which are: – The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years) – The Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years) – The Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years) – The Formal-Operational Stage (11-12 Years and Beyond)
    9. 9. 1- Sensori-Motor Stage (0-2 years)• Sensory contact understanding.• The child explores the world surrounding them using his/her senses• During this first stage, children learn entirely through the movements they make and the sensations that result.
    10. 10. Object permanence………• Initially the baby cannot understand an object exists out of sight.• As the baby reaches around 7/8 months a child will begin to understand the object/person still exists when out of sight.
    11. 11. 2- Pre-Operational stage (2-7yrs old)• The child can understand the use of symbols and language.• This is an example of symbolic thinking. I.E pretend play.• Language is now understood.
    12. 12. Development of……..• Animism…child understands ‘bad table’, believes inanimate objects have feelings as they do.• Egocentricism…Can only see the world from their own point of view• Centration...involves focusing attention (centring)upon only one feature of a situation and ignoring others.• Conservation.
    13. 13. CONSERVATION“the awareness that a quantity remainsthe same despite a change in itsappearance” =
    14. 14. Conservation Tasks
    15. 15. Pre-operational thinking and problems of conservationConservation of liquid
    16. 16. Pre-operational thinking and problems of conservation
    17. 17. Pre-operational thinking and problems of conservation
    18. 18. Pre-operational thinking and problems of conservation
    19. 19. Pre-operational thinking and problems of conservation
    20. 20. Pre-operational thinking and problems of conservation
    21. 21. Pre-operational thinking and problems of conservation
    22. 22. Pre-operational thinking and problems of conservation
    23. 23. Limits of preoperational stage•Still very egocentric –Mountain task
    24. 24. 3- Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)• The children are now able to conserve,• They understand that although the appearance has changed the thing itself does not.• Think logically about concrete events.
    25. 25. 4- Formal Operational Stage (11- 16 years )• Most of previous characteristics discussed have now developed.• The child shows logical thinking and is able to work through abstract problems and use logic without the presence of concrete manipulation.• E.g. If Kelly is taller than John and John is taller than Pete who is the tallest? This is an example of inferential reasoning.
    26. 26. How to apply Piaget’s theory in the classroom?• In the classroom, the teacher should base instructional delivery, classroom management and assessments on schemes the students already know.• Children should be given assignments which are hands on, something that they can physically do and experiment with. They should be able to see and touch the project at hand.
    27. 27. • Piaget recommended that teachers should take an active, mentoring role towards students. Instead of pushing information at students while they sit and listen passively, share the learning experience and encourage students to be active and engaged.• Allow students to learn from their mistakes, Piaget believed that children develop knowledge about the world through trial and error.
    28. 28. • The teacher should focus on the process as well as the result. Instead of focusing on having one right answer, pay attention to the many different steps it take to reach a finished product.• Respect each student’s individual interests and abilities. Different children reach developmental stages at different times, rather than pressuring every child to adapt to one learning style, the teacher should pay attention to each child’s developmental stages and adapt the lesson accordingly.
    29. 29. • Piaget encouraged independent, hands-on learning and opportunities for discovery.• So, the teacher should plan a variety of class activities that accommodate different learning styles, such as visual, kinaesthetic and auditory.
    30. 30. Evaluation of Piagets Theory
    31. 31. Strengths•Active rather than passive view of thechild.• Changed the methods of studyingchildren.• Inspiration•Tasks.
    32. 32. Weaknesses• Piaget carried out his studies with a handful of participants – in the early studies he generally used his own children (small / biased sample).• As several studies have shown Piaget underestimated the abilities of children because his tests were sometimes confusing or difficult to understand
    33. 33. • Because Piaget concentrated on the universal stages of cognitive development and biological maturation, he failed to consider the effect that the social setting and culture may have on cognitive development (re: Vygotsky).• Are the stages real? Vygotsky and Bruner would rather not talk about stages at all, preferring to see development as continuous.
    34. 34. Refferences• Psychology for teachers by : David Fantana• Piaget’s Cognitive Theory• Cognitive Development Today Piaget and hic critics by: Peter Southerland

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