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jean piaget

  1. 1. Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Theory
  2. 2. Piaget (1895-1980) <ul><li>Regarded as the greatest impact on developmental psychology </li></ul><ul><li>He was convinced that older children thought differently from younger children </li></ul><ul><li>He focused on types of mistakes made by children as they were all similar </li></ul><ul><li>Concluded that the way children think changes with age, regardless of what is being thought about </li></ul><ul><li>Observations based on clinical methods of research (presenting children with a task or verbal question that require a solution and explanation). </li></ul><ul><li>Also made detailed observations of his three own children > criticism </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is cognitive development? <ul><li>Cognitive Development: </li></ul><ul><li>The changes that takes place in mental processes that allow humans to understand their environment and respond to it in adaptive ways. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Constructivism <ul><li>Central to Piaget’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>Children are active thinkers constantly trying to construct more accurate or advanced understanding of the world around them. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction through processes of assimilation and accommodation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Assimilation <ul><li>Forcing a new concept into a pre-existing concept e.g. a child who sees a cat for the first time and says “dog”, because it is also a four legged creature. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Accommodation <ul><li>When an individual discovers a new concept and a new schema is created. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. a child sees a zebra and calls it a horse. After correction, the child correctly calls it a zebra in the future. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sensorimotor <ul><li>Birth – 2 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Acts intentionally and figures out ways to make things happen </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually learn that there is a relationship between their actions and the external world. </li></ul><ul><li>Grasp basic concept of cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Knows the world only through motor activities and sensory impressions </li></ul><ul><li>Has yet to use mental symbols/images to represent objects or events ( object permanence) until eighth month </li></ul>
  8. 8. Preoperational Stage <ul><li>2-7yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of symbolic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Language develops – thinks in words </li></ul><ul><li>Still lacks logic and mental operations </li></ul><ul><li>Immature thinking – egocentrism (inability to understand that others may perceive the world differently than they do) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack understanding of relational terms ( lighter, faster, softer) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack seriation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack conservation – knowledge that certain physical attributes of an object remain unchanged even though the outward appearance is altered. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Concrete Operations <ul><li>7-11 </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of logical thought </li></ul><ul><li>Masters conservation and understands reversibility (many physical changes can be undone by a reversal of the original action </li></ul><ul><li>Gain understanding of relational terms and seriation. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in logical thought </li></ul>
  10. 10. Formal Operations <ul><li>12 – onwards </li></ul><ul><li>Can think abstractly </li></ul><ul><li>Can deal with possibilities – events or relationships that do not exist, but can be imagined </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothetico-deductive reasoning – ability to generate hypotheses and thinking logically about symbols and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Capable in engaging in interpropositional thinking – where they seek to test the validity of several propositions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exercise <ul><li>Imagine that you have been given a third eye and that you can place this eye anywhere on your body. Draw a picture of where you would place this extra eye and write a brief explanation of why you would put it there </li></ul>
  12. 12. Strengths <ul><li>How not just what </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of children as active learners who learn best from questioning, exploring and doing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Criticisms <ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Underestimation of children’s cognitive abilities i.e. researchers showed concrete operational aged children can solve formal operational problem when trained. </li></ul><ul><li>Overestimation of adolescents and - later revised F.O. 11 to 15! </li></ul>