Pa 2010 peripheral nervous system

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Pa 2010 peripheral nervous system

  1. 1. Big Horn Sheep Glacier National Park
  2. 3. COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain & Spinal Cord Somatic Cranial Nerves Autonomic (Visceral) 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves Sympathetic Parasympathetic
  3. 4. TYPES OF NEURONS Myelin Myelin Myelin Motor - Efferent Sensory - Afferent Sensory - Afferent
  4. 5. NERVOUS SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY Ganglion – Collection of Cell Bodies outside the CNS. Four Types of Ganglia: 1. Dorsal Root 2. Paravertebral 3. Prevertebral PNS 4. Enteric Motor Neuron – Efferent General Somatic Efferent (GSE) – Spinal Nerve General Visceral Efferent (GVE) – Autonomic Nerve Sensory Neuron – Afferent General Somatic Afferent (GSA) – Spinal Nerve General Visceral Afferent (GVA) – Autonomic Nerve Nucleus/Horn – Collection of Cell Bodies. CNS White Matter – Collection of Myelinated Nerve Fibers. Gray Matter – Collection of Un-myelinated Dendrites and Cell Bodies.
  5. 6. Dorsal Root Dorsal Rootlets * Dorsal Root Ganglion Ventral Rootlets Ventral Root Dorsal Ramus Ventral Ramus Spinal Nerve COMPONENTS OF A SPINAL NERVE Dorsal Horn Gray Matter Ventral Horn Gray Matter *
  6. 7. SOMATIC REFLEX ARC Spinal Nerve Dorsal Root Afferent neurons only Dorsal Root Ganglion Ventral Horn – Cell Bodies Dorsal Horn 1 2 3 4 Ventral Root Efferent neurons only <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><li>proprioception </li></ul>Skeletal Muscle
  7. 8. Synapse of Lower Motor with Upper Motor Neuron Central Lesion Contralateral loss Lower Motor Neuron Decussation in Medulla Site of Crossover Cerebral Cortex Pre-Central Gyrus Upper Motor Neuron CORTICOSPINAL TRACT MOTOR Spinal Cord Lesion Epsilateral loss
  8. 9. Cerebral Cortex Post Central Gyrus Decussation in Medulla Thalamus 1 st Order Neuron 2 nd Order Neuron 2 st Order Neuron 3 rd Order Neuron 3 rd Order Neuron PAIN, TEMPERATURE & TOUCH PROPRIOCEPTION, VIBRATION & DISCRIMINATING TOUCH SPINOTHALAMIC TRACTS - SENSORY 1 st Order Neuron Central Lesion Contralateral loss Central Lesion Contralateral loss Spinal Cord Lesion Epsilateral loss below lesion Spinal Cord Lesion Contralateral loss below lesion
  9. 10. DERMATOMES
  10. 11. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
  11. 12. PARASYMPATHETIC Glands Cardiac muscle – heart Smooth muscle – organs Craniosacral Outflow
  12. 13. SYMPATHETIC Glands – sweat Cardiac muscle – heart Smooth muscle – organs, blood vessels & hair Thoracolumbar Outflow
  13. 16. PRE- AND POST-GANGLIONIC NEURONS Lateral Horn 3 - Preganglionic neuron 4 – Postganglionic neuron
  14. 17. VISCERAL REFLEX ARC Lateral Horn Cell Body of Visceral Afferent In Dorsal Root Ganglion 1 - Receptor 2 - Visceral Afferent 3 - Preganglionic neuron 4 – Postganglionic neuron 5 - Effector: Smooth muscle Gland
  15. 18. SYMPATHETIC TRUNK
  16. 20. Dorsal Root Ganglion General Somatic Efferent Nerve (GSE) Cell Bodies Dorsal Root of Spinal Nerve Ventral Root of Spinal Nerve Anterior Horn Ventral Ramus Dorsal Ramus General Somatic Afferent Nerve (GSA) Spinal Nerve SPINAL NERVE C1 – Cocc 1 Spinal Nerve
  17. 21. Sympathetic Truck Ventral Ramus Gray Ramus Communicans White Ramus Communicans Paravertebral Ganglion ADD THE SYMPATHETIC TRUNK TO SPINAL NERVES T1 – L2 Spinal Nerve Lateral Horn
  18. 22. SYMPATHETIC DISTRIBUTION TO SPINAL NERVES T1-L2 Dorsal Root Ganglion GVA Nerve Postganglionic Nerve (GVE) Preganglionic Nerve (GVE) White Ramus Communicans Paravertebral Ganglion Gray Ramus Communicans Cell Bodies Dorsal Root of Spinal Nerve Ventral Root of Spinal Nerve Lateral Horn Sympathetic Truck Ventral Ramus Dorsal Ramus 1 st Way T1-L2
  19. 23. SYMPATHETIC DISTRIBUTION TO SPINAL NERVES T1-L2 Dorsal Root Ganglion GVA Nerve Postganglionic Nerve (GVE) Preganglionic Nerve (GVE) White Ramus Communicans Cell Bodies Dorsal Root of Spinal Nerve Lateral Horn Paravertebral Ganglion Gray Ramus Communicans Ventral Root of Spinal Nerve Dorsal Ramus Ventral Ramus Paravertebral Ganglion Sympathetic Truck 2 nd Way T1-L2
  20. 24. SYMPATHETIC DISTRIBUTION TO SPINAL NERVES T1-L2 Dorsal Root Ganglion GVA Nerve Postganglionic Nerve (GVE) Preganglionic Nerve (GVE) Cell Bodies Dorsal Root of Spinal Nerve Paravertebral Ganglion Gray Ramus Communicans Ventral Root of Spinal Nerve White Ramus Communicans Dorsal Ramus Ventral Ramus Sympathetic Trunk Lateral Horn 3 nd Way T1-L2
  21. 25. Spinal Nerve Gray Ramus Communicans ONLY Sympathetic Truck Ventral Ramus ADD THE SYMPATHETIC TRUNK TO SPINAL NERVES C1 – C8 Paravertebral Ganglion
  22. 26. Gray Ramus Communicans SYMPATHETIC DISTRIBUTION TO SPINAL NERVES C1-C8 Preganglionic Nerve (GVE) Postganglionic Nerve (GVE) GVA Nerve Cell Bodies Dorsal Ramus Ventral Ramus Ventral Root of Spinal Nerve Dorsal Root of Spinal Nerve Paravertebral Ganglion Dorsal Root Ganglion White Ramus Communicans Sympathetic Trunk Lateral Horn T1-T2 C1-C8
  23. 27. CERVICAL SYMPATHETIC CHAIN GANGLIA
  24. 28. Spinal Nerve Gray Ramus Communicans ONLY Sympathetic Truck Ventral Ramus ADD THE SYMPATHETIC TRUNK TO SPINAL NERVES L3 – Cocc 1 Paravertebral Ganglion
  25. 29. SYMPATHETIC DISTRIBUTION TO SPINAL NERVES L3-Cocc 1 Preganglionic Nerve (GVE) Postganglionic Nerve (GVE) GVA Nerve Cell Bodies Sympathetic Trunk Dorsal Ramus Ventral Ramus Ventral Root of Spinal Nerve Dorsal Root of Spinal Nerve Paravertebral Ganglion Dorsal Root Ganglion Gray Ramus Communicans White Ramus Communicans Lateral Horn L1-L2 L3-Cocc 1
  26. 31. 12 PAIRS OF CRANIAL NERVES CN I Olfactory CN II Optic CN III Oculomotor CN IV Trochlear CN V Trigeminal CN VI Abducens CN VII Facial CN VIII Vesticulocochlear CN IX Glossopharyngeal CN X Vagus CN XI Accessory CN XII Hypoglossal Parasympathetic M – Motor S – Sensory B – Both S S M M B M B S B B M M
  27. 32. The End

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