Autonomic Nervous System

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Anatomy and description of the major contributors to the autonomic nervous system

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Autonomic Nervous System

  1. 1. Nervous 3Autonomic Nervous System<br />McKinley and O’Laughlin<br />Chapter 18<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />What part of the vertebrate nervous system innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glandular tissues and governs involuntary, vital functions?<br />
  3. 3. The ANS affects the following:<br />heart rate<br />digestion<br />respiration rate <br />salivation <br />perspiration <br />diameter of the pupils <br />micturition (urination) <br />sexual arousal <br />
  4. 4. Whereas most of its actions are involuntary, some actions of the ANS, such as breathing, work in tandem with the conscious mind.<br />
  5. 5. The ANS is:<br />Purely motor (though some references include visceral sensory as an arm of the ANS)<br />A functional, not anatomical, division<br />Opposite is the somatic nervous system<br />Mostly working beyond our conscious awareness<br />
  6. 6. Autonomic vs. Somatic<br />If we follow a nerve impulse from the CNS to an effector within the SNS, how many motor neurons would be involved?<br />If we follow a nerve impulse from the CNS to an effector within the ANS, how many motor neurons would be involved?<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Autonomic vs. Somatic<br />A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between the CNS and a ganglion is what type of neuron?<br />Pre-ganglionic - myelinated<br />A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between a ganglion and an effector is what type of neuron?<br />Ganglionic - unmyelinated<br />
  9. 9. Autonomic vs. Somatic<br />What is the axon of a ganglionic neuron with in the ANS?<br />Post-ganglionic axon<br />
  10. 10. ANS Divisions<br />What are the 2 divisions of the ANS?<br />Sympathetic division<br />Parasympathetic division<br />
  11. 11. ANS Divisions<br />What division of the ANS is primarily concerned with conserving energy and replenishing nutrient stores and has been nicknamed the “rest-and-digest” division?<br />Parasympathetic division<br />
  12. 12. ANS Divisions<br />What division of the ANS is primarily concerned with preparing the body for emergencies and is often referred to as the “fight-or-flight” division?<br />Sympathetic division<br />
  13. 13. The parasympathetic division is sometimes referred to as “craniosacral” because the nerves arise from the brain stem (mainly vagus) & sacral region<br />The sympathetic division is sometimes referred to as “thoracolumbar” because of the sympathetic neurons in the spinal nerves of these regions.<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Parasympathetic Division<br />What is another term for the parasympathetic division?<br />_________ division<br />
  17. 17. Parasympathetic Division<br />Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons for the parasympathetic division located?<br />Brainstem<br />S2-S4 (lateral gray matter of spinal cord)<br />
  18. 18. Parasympathetic Division<br />Where are the ganglia of the parasympathetic division found?<br />Terminal ganglia - close to target organ<br />Intramural ganglia - within wall of target organ<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Parasympathetic Division<br />What cranial nerves carry parasympathetic fibers?<br />III Oculomotor<br />VII Facial<br />IX Glossopharyngeal<br />X Vagus<br />
  21. 21. Parasympathetic Division<br />The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the oculomotor nerve?<br />Ciliary muscle<br />Pupillary constrictor of iris<br />Dilator controlled by sympathetic division<br />
  22. 22. Parasympathetic Division<br />The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the facial nerve?<br />Submandibular and sublingual glands<br />Lacrimal gland<br />Glands of nasal cavity, mouth, and palate<br />
  23. 23. Parasympathetic Division<br />The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the glossopharyngeal nerve?<br />Parotid gland<br />
  24. 24. Parasympathetic Division<br />The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the vagus nerve?<br />Thoracic and abdominal organs<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Parasympathetic Division<br />What specific regions of the spinal cord house the cell bodies of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?<br />Lateral horns<br />
  27. 27. Parasympathetic Division<br />What nerves carry fibers of the parasympathetic division of the ANS through the pelvis?<br />Pelvic splanchnic nerves<br />What does ‘splanchnic’ mean?<br />Visceral<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Parasympathetic Effects<br />Increase saliva production<br />Constrict pupils<br />Constrict airways<br />Produce tears<br />Increase GI motility<br />Contract bladder<br />Erect penis/clitoris<br />
  30. 30. Sympathetic Division<br />What is another term for the sympathetic division?<br />_____________ division<br />From what regions of the CNS does the sympathetic division arise?<br />T1-L2 (lateral horns of spinal cord)<br />
  31. 31. Sympathetic Division<br />What part of spinal nerves do the preganglionic sympathetic axons travel within as they leave the lateral horn of the spinal cord?<br />Anterior root<br />
  32. 32. Sympathetic Division<br />What sympathetic ganglia lie on the left and right sides of the vertebral column from T1-L2?<br />Sympathetic trunk ganglia<br />Paravertebral ganglia<br />What structure of the sympathetic division has the appearance of a pearl necklace?<br />Sympathetic trunk (ganglia and axons)<br />
  33. 33. Sympathetic Division<br />What clusters of ganglia of the sympathetic division of the ANS lie within the neck?<br />Cervical ganglia<br />What are the connections between spinal nerves and the sympathetic trunks?<br />Rami communicantes<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Sympathetic Division<br />What structures carry preganglionic sympathetic axons from the T1-L2 spinal nerves to the sympathetic trunk?<br />White rami<br />What structures carry postganglionic sympathetic axons from the sympathetic trunk to the spinal nerves?<br />Gray rami<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Sympathetic Division<br />What structures are composed of preganglionic axons that do not synapse in a sympathetic trunk ganglion?<br />Splanchnic nerves<br />Splanchnic nerves of the sympathetic division of the ANS terminate in what structures?<br />Prevertebral (collateral) ganglia<br />
  39. 39. Sympathetic Division<br />What structures are singular rather than paired, are anterior to the vertebral column, and are located only in the abdominal cavity?<br />Prevertebral ganglia<br />
  40. 40. Sympathetic Division<br />List the 3 prevertebral ganglia<br />Celiac<br />Superior mesenteric<br />Inferior mesenteric<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Sympathetic Pathways<br />What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if it travels through a gray ramus that is at the same level as the ganglionic neuron to innervate blood vessels or arrector pili muscles or sweat glands?<br />Spinal nerve pathway<br />
  43. 43. Sympathetic Pathways<br />What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if the preganglionic neuron synapses with a ganglionic neuron in a sympathetic trunk ganglion, but the postganglionic axon does not leave the trunk via a gray ramus, but instead extends away from the sympathetic trunk ganglion and goes directly to the effector organ?<br />Postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Sympathetic Pathways<br />What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if the preganglionic axon passes through the sympathetic trunk ganglia without synapsing and extends to the prevertebral ganglia?<br />Splanchnic nerve pathway<br />
  46. 46. Sympathetic Pathways<br />What pathway is a sympathetic axon within if it goes to the adrenal medulla?<br />Adrenal medulla pathway<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Sympathetic Effects<br />Pupil dilation<br />Airway dilation<br />Sweat production<br />Mass activation response to stress<br />Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and depth, dilate pupils, stimulate RAS<br />
  49. 49. Autonomic Nervous System<br />Usually both divisions of the ANS innervate organs. Where does this dual innervation not occur?<br />Cutaneous region<br />Includes peripheral blood vessels<br />Sympathetic only<br />
  50. 50. Autonomic Plexuses<br />What are collections of sympathetic postganglionic axons, parasympathetic preganglionic axons, and some visceral sensory axons?<br />Autonomic plexuses<br />
  51. 51. Autonomic Plexuses<br />List the 5 autonomic plexuses<br />Cardiac plexus<br />Esophageal plexus<br />Pulmonary plexus<br />Abdominal plexus<br />Hypogastric plexus<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. CNS Control of ANS<br />What part of the CNS has the greatest control over the ANS?<br />Hypothalamus<br />What part of the CNS holds nuclei which have a great deal of influence over autonomic function?<br />Brain stem<br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55. CNS Control of ANS<br />What division of the ANS may process and control certain functions at the level of the spinal cord without involvement of the brain?<br />Parasympathetic<br />E.g. Defecation and urination<br />
  56. 56.
  57. 57. How does the parasympathetic reflex for urination relate to potty training?<br />
  58. 58. The End of Autonomic Nervous System <br />

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