India Nuclear Weapon Programs Ppt


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India Nuclear Weapon Programs Ppt

  1. 1. India
  2. 2. <ul><li>Overview of India’s International Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of India’s Domestic Political Status </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of India’s Nuclear Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India’s Participation in International Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs and Arms Control Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Key Nuclear Nonproliferation Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul>
  3. 3. India’s Foreign Relations <ul><li>FRIENDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Russian Federation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afghanistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhutan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tajikistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qatar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian Gulf </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the African Union </li></ul>
  4. 4. India’s Foreign Relations <ul><li>ENEMIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepal </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. India’s Foreign Relations <ul><li>ALLIENCES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. India’s Foreign Policy <ul><li>Cold War period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Panchsheel-pragmatism </li></ul><ul><li>National interests </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic consensus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Look East Policy </li></ul>
  7. 7. India Form of Government <ul><li>Union Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Branch- the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament (Legislative)- two houses: Rajya Sabha (Council of State), and Lok Sabha (House of the People) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial Branch- the Supreme Court under the Chief Justice of India, twenty-one High Courts, and many trial courts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Constitution of India </li></ul>
  8. 9. Stability of Government <ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Indian National Congress (INC) </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties in India: the INC, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and the Communist Party of India (CPI) </li></ul>
  9. 10. India's Nuclear Programs <ul><li>PAST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation of India's nuclear program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>August 1947- three stage nuclear program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 18, 1974 (“Smilling Buddha”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1977-79- program put on hold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1998 (&quot;Operation Shakti&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. India's Nuclear Programs <ul><li>PRESENT-The most recent figures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plutonium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates of warheads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>November 2008- 70 assembled nuclear warheads (~50 fully operational) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end of 1999- 310 kilograms of weapon grade plutonium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4,200 kg of reactor grade plutonium=ability to build 1,000 nuclear weapons </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Purpose of the Nuclear Program <ul><li>“ Following the successful nuclear tests in May 1998 at Pokharan, implementation of the program to meet the national policy of credible minimum nuclear deterrence in terms of necessary research and development as well as manufacture, is being pursued.” </li></ul><ul><li>2005- India officially defensive </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom line - For defense and deterrence. Nuclear weapons is a global not a regional problem. </li></ul>
  12. 13. India's Nuclear Doctrine <ul><li>“ possible Indian Nuclear Doctrine”- January 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>India “will not be the first to initiate a nuclear strike, but will respond with punitive retaliation should deterrence fail.” </li></ul><ul><li>The doctrine calls for nuclear forces based on a “triad of aircraft, mobile, land-based missiles, and sea-based assets.” </li></ul><ul><li>May use weapons against a non nuclear weapons country if attacked by chemical or biological weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Line: Peaceful, but real </li></ul>
  13. 14. Aircraft and Missile Capability <ul><li>Ballistic missiles include the short-range Prithvi and the medium-range Agni. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium range Agni II has a declared range of 2,000 to 2,500 kilometers. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite ballistic missiles, its probable delivery platforms remain its fighter-bomber aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Options include Mirage 2000, MiG-27, MiG-29, Su-30, and Jaguar aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Line -until 2010 fighter-bomber aircraft only feasible option ( confirmed by the Indian Air Force) </li></ul>
  14. 15. List of all their missiles <ul><ul><li>SRBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agni-I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prithvi-I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prithvi-II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prithvi-III </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dhanush </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MRBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agni-II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agni-III </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agni-IV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agni 3SL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surya-I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surya-II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shaurya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sagarika </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popeye </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Akash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cruise Missile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BrahMos-I (supersonic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BrahMos-II (hypersonic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nirbhay (subsonic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P-270 Moskit (supersonic) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Agni II Agni III
  16. 17. Dhanush Shaurya
  17. 18. Akash BrahMos
  18. 19. Biological and Chemical Weapons Capability <ul><li>India might conduct research on biological warfare defenses (stated by U.S. intelligence) </li></ul><ul><li>June 1997-India publicly admitted to pursuing an offensive chemical warfare capability for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>Under the chemical Weapons Convention, India has pledged to destroy all its chemical agents </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Line- Because India has a sizable indigenous chemical industry, its activities and sales could remain a cause for concern. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Treaties and Organizations <ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION (CWC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICAL AND TOXICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION (BTWC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial Test Ban Treaty-October 1963 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Suppliers Group- September 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Atomic Energy Agency (2008-2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctic Treaty- August 19, 1983 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Space Treaty (Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Treaties and Organizations cont. <ul><li>India is not a member of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or a signatory of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treat (CTBT). </li></ul><ul><li>It conducted a test of a “peaceful” nuclear device in 1974 and five tests of nuclear weapons in May 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>not signed the FMCT (Fissile Material Cutoff treaty) </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Line: Peaceful, but not part of NPT or CTBT </li></ul>
  21. 22. India’s Key Nonproliferation Issue <ul><li>The Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>India is not willing to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>India, as a one of the member of the United Nations, after many decades in debates with different countries, still declines to sign the treaty. What would be a solution to convince India Government to sign the treaty? </li></ul>
  22. 23. Optional Solutions <ul><li>OPTION #1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give India a seat in the Security Council </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OPTION #2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have China and India sign a bilateral arms agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OPTION #3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have India under the US nuclear umbrella </li></ul></ul>