Indo - US Nuclear Deal


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Indo - US Nuclear Deal

  2. 2. WHAT IS NUCLEAR DEAL? <ul><li>The Indo- U.S. civilian nuclear agreement is the name commonly attributed to a bilateral agreement on nuclear co- operation between the United States of America and the Republic of India. </li></ul>
  3. 4. KEY ASPECTS OF THE DEAL <ul><li>The agreement not to hinder or interfere with India's nuclear programme for military purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>US will help India negotiate with the IAEA for an India-specific fuel supply agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Washington will support New Delhi develop strategic reserves of nuclear fuel to guard against future disruption of supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the countries agree to facilitate nuclear trade between themselves in the interest of respective industries and consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>India and the US agree to transfer nuclear material, non-nuclear material, equipment and components. </li></ul><ul><li>Any special fissionable material transferred under the agreement shall be low enriched uranium. </li></ul>
  4. 5. KEY ASPECTS CONT… <ul><li>Low enriched uranium can be transfered for use as fuel in reactor experiments and in reactors for conversion or fabrication. </li></ul><ul><li>The ambit of the deal include research, development, design, construction, operation, maintenance and use of nuclear reactors, reactor experiments and decommissioning. </li></ul><ul><li>The US will have the right to seek return of nuclear fuel and technology but it will compensate for the costs incurred as a consequence of such removal. </li></ul><ul><li>The US to engage Nuclear Suppliers Group to help India obtain full access to the international fuel market, including reliable, uninteruppted and continual access to fuel supplies from firms in several nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear material and equipment transferred to India by the US would be subject to safeguards in perpetuity. </li></ul>
  5. 6. HISTORY OF INDIA’S NUCLEAR PROGRAMME <ul><li>1950: The United States helped India develop nuclear energy under the atoms for peace programme. </li></ul><ul><li>1968: India refused to sign the NPT, claiming it was biased. </li></ul><ul><li>1974: India tested its first nuclear bomb which was made by the materials from the Canadian reactor in tarapur which supposed to be used only for civilian purpose. </li></ul>
  6. 7. HISTORY CONT… <ul><li>After our first nuclear bomb test, Canada and U.S. stopped selling nuclear fuel for Tarapur reactor. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and other NSG countries isolated India for 3 decades, refusing nuclear cooperation and trying to convince other countries to do the same. </li></ul><ul><li>2000: U.S. has moved to build a “strategic partnership” with India. </li></ul>
  7. 8. HISTORY CONT…… <ul><li>Aug 1, 2008: The IAEA approved the safeguards agreement with India, after which the U.S. approached the NSG to grant a waiver to India. </li></ul><ul><li>Sep 6, 2008: 45- nation NSG granted the waiver to India. </li></ul><ul><li>Sep 28, 2008: The U.S. House of Representatives passed the nuclear deal. </li></ul><ul><li>Sep 30, 2008: India and France inked a similar nuclear pact. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 1, 2008: The U.S. senate also approved the civilian nuclear agreement. </li></ul>
  8. 9. HISTORY CONTD……… <ul><li>Oct 8,2008: U.S. president, George W. Bush, signed the legislation on the Indo US nuclear deal. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 10,2008: The agreement was signed by Indian External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee and his counterpart Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. </li></ul>
  9. 10. WHAT KIND OF TECHNOLOGY WOULD INDIA RECIEVES IN RETURN? <ul><li>India would be eligible to buy nuclear technology from NSG countries (there are 45 countries in NSG). </li></ul><ul><li>India will get Nuclear reactor and Fuel for making power for energy. </li></ul><ul><li>India will become the only one country that gets Nuclear technology without signing NPT. </li></ul>
  10. 11. WHAT IS NPT? <ul><li>Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT)- is a treaty to limit the spread of nuclear weapons. There are currently 189 countries signed the treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>5 of which have nuclear weapons : the US, UK, France, Russia and China. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 4 recognized sovereign states are not parties to the treaty: India, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea. </li></ul>
  11. 12. WHAT USA GETS FROM THIS AGREEMENT? <ul><li>U.S. expects that such a deal could spur India’s economic growth and bring in $150 bn in the next decade for the nuclear power plants, of which the US wants the share. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. also expects India’s economic growth will make a counterweight to China. </li></ul><ul><li>In the best interest of U.S. to secure its energy needs of coal, crude oil and natural gas. </li></ul>
  12. 13. PARTIES SUPPORTING DEAL <ul><li>Indian National Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Samajwadi Party </li></ul><ul><li>Dravida Munnetra kazhagam </li></ul><ul><li>Rashtriya Janta Dal </li></ul>
  13. 14. OPPOSITION IN INDIA <ul><li>Bhartiya Janta Party </li></ul><ul><li>Left Front </li></ul>
  14. 15. INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT <ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Russia and </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Australia, China and Canada supporting the deal when India asks NSG. </li></ul>
  15. 16. IN INDIA <ul><li>Estimated annual Uranium production ~ 300 tons. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated annual Uranium consumption ~ 450 tons. </li></ul><ul><li>Current Capacity: </li></ul><ul><li>Installed Nuclear Capacity = 3310 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Almost Commissioned = 540 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Under construction = 3380 MW </li></ul>
  16. 17. ADVANTAGES OF DEAL TO INDIA <ul><li>India’s economical growth is 8- 10% a year and in 10 years we won’t be able to keep up without clean nuclear energy. In order for India to become a developed nation, we must have nuclear energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable powers brings more foreign investments to India. </li></ul><ul><li>No power means no factories, no manufacturing plants, no growth and no job. Thus it will bring more and more job opportunities to India. </li></ul>
  17. 18. DISADVANTAGES OF DEAL TO INDIA <ul><li>India have to disclose its all nuclear power plants’ secrets and also agree to 14 of our nuclear power plants to be under the scanner of International Atomic Power Organization. </li></ul><ul><li>If India does nuclear test, this agreement gets cancelled.  But (1) USA will take back all the machinery / equipments / technology supplied to India thus far. (2) Those 14 plants will continue to be under scanner irrespective of the status of the agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, if any of the commitments given by USA is breached by them, then there is no clause for cancelling this agreement. The agreement is apparently like this... USA can either hug India or slap India. India will not ask why are we hugged or why are we slapped. On the other hand, India cannot hug or slap USA for breach of agreement. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>