India US Nuclear deal


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India US Nuclear deal

  1. 1. Global Implications of the U.S.-India Nuclear Deal Sheryll Poe U.S.-Global Trade Politics October 30, 2008
  2. 2. Two Democracies: U.S. and India <ul><li>In July 2005, President Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh issued a joint statement announcing their intent to negotiate a civil nuclear pact </li></ul>Photo credit: White House
  3. 3. The history of India’s nuclear program <ul><li>1950: The United States helped India develop nuclear energy under the Atoms for Peace Program </li></ul><ul><li>1968: India refused to sign the NPT, claiming it was biased. (only 3 countries in the world never signed NPT -- India, Pakistan, and Israel. North Korea signed but withdrew later) </li></ul><ul><li>1974: India tested its first nuclear bomb made with materials from the Canadian reactor in Tarapur, which supposed to be used only for civilian purpose </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are the terms of the deal? <ul><li>India agrees to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities and place its civil facilities under IAEA safeguards </li></ul><ul><li>The use of technology is only for civilian purpose -- to create energy. India cannot use the technology for military purpose </li></ul><ul><li>India commits to strengthening the security of its nuclear arsenals. </li></ul><ul><li>The companies from U.S and NSG countries will be allowed to build nuclear reactors in India and provide nuclear fuel for its civilian energy program </li></ul>
  5. 5. What kind of technology would India receive in return? <ul><li>India would be eligible to buy nuclear technology from NSG countries including the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear reactors and fuel for making power for energy hungry India </li></ul><ul><li>India will become the only country that gets nuclear technology without signing the NPT </li></ul>
  6. 6. Who hated it in India and why? <ul><li>The national Communist Party </li></ul><ul><li>The Right wing Bharatiya Janata Party, the country's principal opposition party </li></ul><ul><li>A principal Left wing party </li></ul>Photo credit: Gurinder Osan, AP
  7. 7. What were the objections in the U.S. and NSG? <ul><li>Some American law makers </li></ul><ul><li>Some countries in NSG – Austria, New Zealand, Ireland and China </li></ul><ul><li>The main objection is proliferation – India refuses to sign on to NPT </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is outrageous that such a critical vote, one that will forever change the global nonproliferation regime, was taken without the benefit of full Congressional review and oversight, as required by the law. This is a terrible bill that threatens the future of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime.” – Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) before the House approval on September 27, 2008. </li></ul>Photo credit: Boston Herald
  8. 8. So why do it? <ul><li>A share of India's plans to spend $150 billion in the next decade for nuclear power plants </li></ul><ul><li>A counterweight to China </li></ul><ul><li>A strategic partnership in a dangerous part of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Partner in the war against terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>In recognition of India’s good record on proliferation </li></ul><ul><li>“ This agreement sends a signal to the world: Nations that follow the path of democracy and responsible behavior will find a friend in the United States of America.” – President Bush at the October 8, 2008 signing of the U.S.-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act </li></ul>Photo credit: White House
  9. 9. Where the candidates stand <ul><li>“ I voted for the U.S.-India nuclear agreement because India is a strong democracy and a natural strategic partner for the U.S. in the 21st century.” – Barrack Obama to Reuters, July 11, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>“ India has been a responsible democracy and this agreement allows it to become further integrated into the global effort to control proliferation of dangerous technologies.” – John McCain campaign statement, October 2, 2008 </li></ul>Photo credit: candidate sites
  10. 10. Outstanding Issues <ul><li>Nuclear rivalries – with Pakistan, China, Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Other NSG countries – France, Russia -- will sell to India and shut out the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Undermines the NPT and shows the rules can be bent for sales to other non-signatories </li></ul><ul><li>New Delhi has not ratified an international nuclear accident liability convention known as the CSC. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What can the U.S. do? <ul><li>Work with other NSG members on becoming joint suppliers – France, Russia, even China </li></ul><ul><li>Work with the UN to keep an eye on Pakistan, Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new NPT treaty that more accurately reflects the realities of today </li></ul><ul><li>Provide technical assistance to help India become a good nuclear partner </li></ul><ul><li>Create a nuclear FTA with other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Create a US watchdog group involving agencies, Congress and non-proliferation experts </li></ul>
  12. 12. Final Thought <ul><li>“ What message does that send to others who want to join the nuclear club?” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Sen. Byron Dorgan, D-N.D. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sources <ul><li>Adams, Jonathan. “International community split over U.S.-India nuclear deal.” The Christian Science Monitor . August 21, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Bajoria, Jayshree; Pan, Esther. “The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal.” The Washington Post . September 4, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Denyer, Simon. “Factbox: U.S.-India Nuclear Deal Business Potential.” Reuters. October 2, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>“ India Civil Nuclear Cooperation: Responding to Critics.” The White House Office of the Press Secretary. March 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Kronstadt, K. Alan. “India U.S. Relations.” Congressional Research Service. Updated August 12, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Kushner, Adam B. “How India’s New Nuke Deal Might Set Off an Arms Race.” Newsweek . October 20, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>“ More Than Just the 123 Agreement: The Future of U.S.-Indo Relations.” Congressional hearing of the House Foreign Relations Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia. June 25, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Page, Jeremy. “India parliament launches nuclear debate in vote that could break Government.” The India Times. July 22, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Perkovich, George. “Faulty Promises: The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal.” Policy Outlook, No. 21. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. September 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomero, Leonor. “Why the U.S. India Nuclear Deal is a Bad Deal.” Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. August 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>“ US business hails $150 bn'opportunity' in N-deal.” The Economic Times . October 2, 2008. </li></ul>