1.capsule – expanded as Bowman’s capsule enclosing the glomerulus
1.Tubular secretion molecules (uric acid, creatinine, ammonia) from the blood moved into the distal convoluted tubule through active transport.
2.Reabsorption of water returns by osmosis following active reabsorption of salts along the length of the nephron and notably at the loop of Henle and collecting duct..
3.excretion urines formed and goes out of the kidney through the pelvis and ureter going into the urinary blader for tempory storage.
Common kidney disorder ●Acute real failure, which occurs suddenly, may be caused by bacterial infection, injury, shock, congestive heart failure, drug poisoning, or severe bleeding following surgery. Treatment may include drugs to address the underlying cause or to stimulate proper kidney function, blood transfusion, surgery or in some cases, kidney dialysis in which the blood is mechanically filtered
Chronic renal failure is a progressive deterioration of the kidney function over a long period of time. It can be caused by disease such as hypertension, diabetes, lupus erythematosus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and a form of cancer called myeloma. *
●Urinary calculi, commonly known as kidney stones, result from the gradual buildup of crystallized salts and minerals in the urine. Kidney stones can cause intense pain if they obstruct a passageway that carries urine. Usually, the stones pass through and out of the urinary tract or their own. If they fail to pass out of the body, they, can be removed surgically or broken up non-surgically by an ultrasound technique called lithotripsy
2.Proximal convoluted portion-connected to the capsule,about 14mm in length and 60 mm in diameter..
3.Loop of Henle consisting of two straight (ascending and descending) limbs running parallel to each other..
4.Distal convoluted portion- short and much convoluted leading to a short, arched connecting portion, which empties into a straight collecting duct leading to the renal pelvis..
Steps of urine formation
Pressure filtration Small molecules (water, glucose, amino acids, salts, urea, uric acids) from the glomerulus were forced by the blood into the Bowman’s capsule.
Selective ReabsorptionMolecules(water, amino acids, salts) return to the blood at the proximal convoluted tubule through diffusion and transport.