Genetically modified foods


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  • You had a really cool powerpoint! I liked how you put all of the different techniques. You made understanding genetically modified food really easy. You were really clear and concise! The cartoons were funny! I can't believe so many vegetables are genetically modified.
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Genetically modified foods

  1. 1. Genetically Modified Foods By: Emily Luti
  2. 2. How does it work? Genes use messages to make certain enzymes. By introducing a foreign gene, new enzymes are made according to that gene. huLl8A&feature=related&safety_mode=tr ue&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
  3. 3. Techniques Bacterial Carriers:  Bacterium such as Agrobacterium, is able to transfer DNA well to plants.  Bacterium prepared in special solution to make cell walls more permeable.  Selected gene is placed in the extra-chromosomal DNA (plasmid) of other bacterium and dropped into solution.  Solution is heated, giving the plasmid access to the Agrobacterium, and the gene begins to express itself.  The genetically altered bacterium is allowed to grow, then infect plants for the gene to be expressed.
  4. 4. Techniques Biolistics  Selected DNA is attached to small particles of either gold or metal tungsten.  DNA particles are shot into the target cells using pressure.
  5. 5. Techniques Calcium Phosphate precipitation  Selected DNA is exposed to calcium phosphate, tiny granules are created.  Target cells respond to granules, and surround and digest them.  This allows the granules to release the DNA and deliver it to the host Nuclei and its DNA.
  6. 6. Techniques Electroporation  Prepared cells are surrounded by a special solution with the selected DNA.  A short electric shock is passed through the solution.  The result is a permeable cell wall for the DNA to enter the nuclei through.  Cells are placed into another solution which encourages to repair of their cell walls, locking the foreign DNA within.  The new DNA is incorporated into the chromosomes, and the host has a new gene.
  7. 7. Techniques Gene Silencing  The gene that controls the undesirable trait is identified.  A second copy of the gene, facing the wrong way around, is attached to the undesirable gene.
  8. 8. Techniques Gene Splicing  Restriction enzymes can cut their DNA into “sticky” fragments and paste them directly to another set of DNA for infection.  These restriction enzymes are used by scientists to genetically engineer cells. The DNA is cut, then inserted into a different set of DNA, where DNA ligase is used to fuse the new gene sequence to the chromosome.  Alternatively, the gene may be placed into a bacterial plasmid and allowed to enter the defective cell and deliver the new gene.
  9. 9. Techniques Lipofection  Small bubbles of fat, liposomes, are used to carry the specific DNA.  The target cells and liposomes are put into a special solution.  The liposomes combine with the phospholipids in the cell membrane, allowing the DNA to enter the cell and combine with the chromosomes.
  10. 10. Techniques Microinjection  Selected DNA is inserted into a female ovarian egg through a glass capillary tube.  The egg is transferred into the prepared uterus of a female to grow full term.  Creates a transgenic animal that will have all new cells.
  11. 11. Techniques Viral Carriers  Selected DNA is added to a virus.  Virus is then allowed to infect the target.  As the virus replicates inside the invaded cell, the DNA is added to the cells genetic make-up.
  12. 12. Industry Countries using:  Japan  Malaysia  Australia  Europe (pretty much everyone)  USA  Canada  Most first world countries and some second world  Most countries require labels for consumer choice
  13. 13. Examples? Plants:  Rice  Soybean  Sugar Cane  Tomatoes  Corn  Potatoes  Peas  Squash,ect.
  14. 14. Examples? Meats  Cattle  Pigs Other products  Honey  Cotton  Oils  Tobacco  Dairy  Vitamins
  15. 15. The Debate: Good or Bad? Advantages  Medical Advances  Edible Vaccines  Virtual End to World Hunger  No mal nutrition  Grown in bulk/ plenty supply  Cheaper/Faster to Grow  Don’t have to be rich to plant  Environmentally Friendly  No pesticides  No run-off into water supply  Sustainable  Flood/Drought tolerant  Better Nutrition  Vitamin enriched  Better Bang for your Buck  Grown bigger  Endless possibilities  Anything alive can be genetically modified
  16. 16. The Debate: Good or Bad? Disadvantages  Opposition  Religion  Regulation/ money cost for approvement  What will it do in the future?  Health risks  Allergies  Help or not?  Medicine  Antibiotic resistance  What could it create?  Resistant weeds  Pollination  Cross pollination in wild  Choice?  Labeling/ Health approval in some countries  Incidents already occurring  1989 incident killed dozens with infected food supplement L-tryptophan  2006 contaminated exported rice genes
  17. 17. Autobiography Butcher, Mavis. "Genetically Modified Food-GM Foods List and Information." Disabled-World, 22 Sept. 2009. Web. 16 May 2012. < foods.php>. Deakin University- Faculty of Health and Behavioral Sciences. "Genetically Modified Foods-Techniques.“ Better Health Channel. State of Victoria. Web. 10 May 2012. < /bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Genetically_modified_foods_techniques>. Fedoroff, Nina V. "Engineering Food for All." The New York Times. The New York Times, 19 Aug. 2011. Web. 16 May 2012. <http://www. all.html>. Giorgio, V. "Genetically Modified Food." Scienceray. Scienceray, 5 Mar. 2008. Web. 16 May 2012. < /applied-science/genetically-modified-food/>.
  18. 18. Genetically Modified Food!!!