How does it work? Genes use messages to make certain enzymes. By introducing a foreign gene, new enzymes are made according to that gene. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoCII huLl8A&feature=related&safety_mode=tr ue&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
Techniques Bacterial Carriers: Bacterium such as Agrobacterium, is able to transfer DNA well to plants. Bacterium prepared in special solution to make cell walls more permeable. Selected gene is placed in the extra-chromosomal DNA (plasmid) of other bacterium and dropped into solution. Solution is heated, giving the plasmid access to the Agrobacterium, and the gene begins to express itself. The genetically altered bacterium is allowed to grow, then infect plants for the gene to be expressed.
Techniques Biolistics Selected DNA is attached to small particles of either gold or metal tungsten. DNA particles are shot into the target cells using pressure.
Techniques Calcium Phosphate precipitation Selected DNA is exposed to calcium phosphate, tiny granules are created. Target cells respond to granules, and surround and digest them. This allows the granules to release the DNA and deliver it to the host Nuclei and its DNA.
Techniques Electroporation Prepared cells are surrounded by a special solution with the selected DNA. A short electric shock is passed through the solution. The result is a permeable cell wall for the DNA to enter the nuclei through. Cells are placed into another solution which encourages to repair of their cell walls, locking the foreign DNA within. The new DNA is incorporated into the chromosomes, and the host has a new gene.
Techniques Gene Silencing The gene that controls the undesirable trait is identified. A second copy of the gene, facing the wrong way around, is attached to the undesirable gene.
Techniques Gene Splicing Restriction enzymes can cut their DNA into “sticky” fragments and paste them directly to another set of DNA for infection. These restriction enzymes are used by scientists to genetically engineer cells. The DNA is cut, then inserted into a different set of DNA, where DNA ligase is used to fuse the new gene sequence to the chromosome. Alternatively, the gene may be placed into a bacterial plasmid and allowed to enter the defective cell and deliver the new gene.
Techniques Lipofection Small bubbles of fat, liposomes, are used to carry the specific DNA. The target cells and liposomes are put into a special solution. The liposomes combine with the phospholipids in the cell membrane, allowing the DNA to enter the cell and combine with the chromosomes.
Techniques Microinjection Selected DNA is inserted into a female ovarian egg through a glass capillary tube. The egg is transferred into the prepared uterus of a female to grow full term. Creates a transgenic animal that will have all new cells.
Techniques Viral Carriers Selected DNA is added to a virus. Virus is then allowed to infect the target. As the virus replicates inside the invaded cell, the DNA is added to the cells genetic make-up.
Industry Countries using: Japan Malaysia Australia Europe (pretty much everyone) USA Canada Most first world countries and some second world Most countries require labels for consumer choice
The Debate: Good or Bad? Advantages Medical Advances Edible Vaccines Virtual End to World Hunger No mal nutrition Grown in bulk/ plenty supply Cheaper/Faster to Grow Don’t have to be rich to plant Environmentally Friendly No pesticides No run-off into water supply Sustainable Flood/Drought tolerant Better Nutrition Vitamin enriched Better Bang for your Buck Grown bigger Endless possibilities Anything alive can be genetically modified
The Debate: Good or Bad? Disadvantages Opposition Religion Regulation/ money cost for approvement What will it do in the future? Health risks Allergies Help or not? Medicine Antibiotic resistance What could it create? Resistant weeds Pollination Cross pollination in wild Choice? Labeling/ Health approval in some countries Incidents already occurring 1989 incident killed dozens with infected food supplement L-tryptophan 2006 contaminated exported rice genes
Autobiography Butcher, Mavis. "Genetically Modified Food-GM Foods List and Information." Disabled-World.com. Disabled-World, 22 Sept. 2009. Web. 16 May 2012. <http://www.disabled-worl.com/fitness/gm- foods.php>. Deakin University- Faculty of Health and Behavioral Sciences. "Genetically Modified Foods-Techniques.“ Better Health Channel. State of Victoria. Web. 10 May 2012. <http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au /bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Genetically_modified_foods_techniques>. Fedoroff, Nina V. "Engineering Food for All." The New York Times. The New York Times, 19 Aug. 2011. Web. 16 May 2012. <http://www. nytimes.com/2011/08/19/opinion/genetically-engineered-food-for- all.html>. Giorgio, V. "Genetically Modified Food." Scienceray. Scienceray, 5 Mar. 2008. Web. 16 May 2012. <http://scienceray.com/technology /applied-science/genetically-modified-food/>.