Genetic Engineering

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Genetic Engineering

  1. 1. By: Alex Richwalder, Amanda Snyder, Kristen Smith Genetic Engineering
  2. 2. What do these items have in common?
  3. 3. <ul><li>DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic code responsible for giving organisms certain phenotypes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is genetic engineering? <ul><li>A deliberate, controlled manipulation of genes in an organism with the intent of making that organism better in some way. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of various experimental techniques to produce molecules of DNA containing new genes, or novel combinations of genes, for insertion into a host cell for cloning. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How is it done? <ul><li>First, get a sample of the gene you wish to transfer from one organism to another </li></ul><ul><li>Use enzymes to cut certain DNA sequences that code for the desired characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Insert the code into tiny circles of bacterial DNA called plasmids </li></ul>
  6. 6. Continued… <ul><li>Allow plasmids carrying the gene to infect a culture of bacterial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Grow each of these cells as a pure cell culture </li></ul><ul><li>Through a screening process, select an adequate gene that will stick to others via A,T,C,G </li></ul>
  7. 7. Continued… <ul><li>Take selected object you want modified, open pores of the cell membrane, and insert gene into cell. </li></ul><ul><li>By various methods (like particle guns) selected genes will combine with the natural DNA, therefore altering the original sequence. This phase of genetic engineering varies depending on the organism. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Genetically Modified <ul><li>Genetically modified (GM) foods are foodstuffs produced from genetically modified organisms (GMO) that have had their genome altered through genetic engineering. GM Foods have been available since the 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Most common examples of GM foods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soybean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomatoes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. But WHY do this? <ul><li>As stated before, the overall goal is to create a product better than the original. We look at agriculture as our main example </li></ul>
  10. 11. Food for thought… <ul><li>Early forms of genetic modification were done by hand </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest Farmers altered the genetic makeup of corn </li></ul><ul><li>Corn's ancestor, a grass called teosinte, had small ears with sparse kernels </li></ul><ul><li>As humans selected teosinte ears bearing the most plump kernels, they gradually edged evolution towards forming a new species, corn </li></ul><ul><li>The jackets formed by the leaves covering an ear of corn (husks) are so tight that the plant cannot naturally release its seed. This would not benefit a plant in the wild </li></ul>
  11. 12. Today’s Use <ul><li>pest resistance </li></ul><ul><li>herbicide tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>cold tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>nutritional abundance </li></ul><ul><li>pharmaceutical additions </li></ul><ul><li>shelf life </li></ul>By altering the original DNA of the plants, we can create new plants with several advantages. (Can you guess what these are?)
  12. 13. Negative Effects <ul><li>Environmental activists, religious organizations, public interest groups, profession associations, and other science and government officials have raised concerns about GM foods and its potential hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Problems with GM foods include: </li></ul><ul><li> Allergens </li></ul><ul><li> Gene transfer to non-target species </li></ul><ul><li> Reduced effectiveness of pesticides </li></ul><ul><li> Unintended harm to other organisms </li></ul>
  13. 14. Genetic Engineering, A Whole New Level <ul><li>The latest trend in genetic engineering is now experimentation on animals </li></ul>click me
  14. 15. Pharming <ul><li>Genetic modification on farm animals has potential to lower prices and enhance enrichment, however, the ethics behind this are very strong, so research is kept at bay. </li></ul><ul><li>Two common types of pharming include injecting cows with hormones so that the milk they produce will have proteins of potential medical benefit as well as pharmaceutical products </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Does cow milk contain Vitamin D? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: NO! The hormone is injected after pumping, Adding Vitamin D to milk is like adding Iodine to salt. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Pharming <ul><li>A recent genetic modification concerns breeding featherless chickens. Because there are more chickens than people in the world, plucking is very time consuming and costly. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Should we continue? <ul><li>75% of all crops grown in the U.S. contain some type of GM gene at varying degrees </li></ul><ul><li>These enhanced plants are not only good for the American wallet, but they can help other third world countries in fighting starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree with the use of GM foods? </li></ul>QUESTIONS?

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