Genetically Modified Foods• Genetically Modified Foods= Food items that have had their DNA changed through Genetic Engineering.
Manipulating the DNA• The whole process of genetic modification consists of manipulating the DNA.• Manipulating the DNA= Allows certain genes to be identified, copied and brought into other organisms in more specific ways.
Main types of Modified Organisms• Foods• Plants• Animals• Bacteria
Modifying Plants & Animals• To modify plants and animals the plasmid is taken out from the bacteria and the clone gene is replaced with a restriction enzyme.• For animals this is done by injecting millions of copies of the gene into the nucleus of a fertilized egg.
Modifying Foods• To modify foods certain genes and chemicals are injected into the food such as bananas to make it larger, and for it to stay riper longer.• This method is called Cisgenesis, which genes are artificially transferred between organisms. This process is also used in plants.
Modifying Bacteria• Plasmids are used to modify them.• The plasmid is cut open by a restriction enzyme and mixed with a certain gene.• DNA ligase is used to stitch the certain gene into the plasmid.
Disadvantages• Health Concerns• Allergic reactions are most common because people can react to the ingredients used.• Eggs, wheat, fish, tree nuts, peanuts and soybeans are most common.• FDA has set rules so that all modified foods containing these ingredients must have labels.
Modification in use Today• In the United States 60 to 70% of food products in stores contain genetically modified food ingredients.• 25% corn, 38% soybean, and 45% of cotton are the most commonly planted modified foods in the U.S.
Modification for the Future• Researchers have been looking for new methods to make the crop production larger.• Newest technique found is called Marker Assisted Selection. (MAS for short)• MASS join normal genetics and molecular biology.• Allows the selection of genes that control a specific trait, such as color, and meat quality.