After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. To define the key biographical characteristics. 2. To identify two types of others. 3. To shape the behavior of others. 4. To distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement. 5. To clarify the role of punishment in learning. 6. To practice self-management.
Focus of Organizational behavior Visible Aspect Hidden Aspect Strategies Attitudes Objectives Perception Policies and Procedures Group Norms Structures Informal Interaction Technology Interpersonal and Intergroup Formal Authority Conflicts Chain of Command
Goals of Organizational BehaviorBehavior how people act.Organizational Behavior study of how people act at work.Employee Productivity a performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness.Absenteeism failure to report to work.Turnover voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.Job satisfaction employee must have a general attitude toward his or her job.Workplace misbehavior international behavior that has negative consequences for the organization of individuals within the organization.
Biographical characteristicsPersonal characteristicSuch as:• Age• Gender• Marital statusThose are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.
The Ability, Intellect and the Intelligence• Ability an individuals capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.• Intellect the capacity to do mental activities.• Multiple intelligences intelligence contains four subparts such us:Cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
Dimensions of Intellectual Ability– Number aptitude– Verbal comprehension– Perceptual speed– Deductive reasoning– Spatial visualization– Memory
Learning any relative permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning Involves change Relatively permanent Acquired through experience
Classical Conditioning – a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to the some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such us a response.Operant Conditioning – A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward.Shaping Behavior – Systematically reinforcement each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
Types of Reinforcement• Positive reinforcement – Providing a reward for desired behavior• Negative Reinforcement – Removing unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs.• Punishment – Applying undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior• Extinction – Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.
Continuous Reinforcement – A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated.Intermittent Reinforcement – A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
Behavior ModificationOB Mod – The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.OB MOD Organizational Applications• Well Pay Versus Sick Pay – Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence.• Employee Discipline – To use of punishment can be counter-productive• Developing Training Programs – OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness• Self-management – Reduces the need for external management control.